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fructosyltransferase (FTase). The reaction is commonly performed at high initial sucrose concentration (over 300 gL −1 ) in order to shift enzyme activity from hydrolysis of sucrose towards transfructosylation. The conversion is a complex process that involves a series

Open access

The endocytotic c-type lectin receptor DEC-205 is highly expressed on immature dendritic cells. In previous studies, it was shown that antigen-targeting to DEC-205 is a useful tool for the induction of antigen-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and thereby can prevent inflammatory processes. However, whether this approach is sufficient to mediate tolerance in mucosal tissues like the gut is unknown. In this study, we established a new mouse model in which the adoptive transfer of naive hemagglutinin (HA)-specific CD4+Foxp3 T cells into VILLIN-HA transgenic mice leads to severe colitis. To analyze if antigen-targeting to DEC-205 could protect against inflammation of the gut, VILLIN-HA transgenic mice were injected with an antibody–antigen complex consisting of the immunogenic HA110–120 peptide coupled to an α-DEC-205 antibody (DEC-HA) before adoptive T cell transfer. DEC-HAtreated mice showed significantly less signs of intestinal inflammation as was demonstrated by reduced loss of body weight and histopathology in the gut. Strikingly, abrogated intestinal inflammation was mediated via the conversion of naive HA-specific CD4+Foxp3 T cells into HA-specific CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. In this study, we provide evidence that antigen-targeting to DEC-205 can be utilized for the induction of tolerance in mucosal organs that are confronted with large numbers of exogenous antigens.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: E. Sapi, K. Balasubramanian, A. Poruri, J. S. Maghsoudlou, K. M. Socarras, A. V. Timmaraju, K. R. Filush, K. Gupta, S. Shaikh, P. A. S. Theophilus, D. F. Luecke, A. MacDonald, and B. Zelger

. Brorson O , Brorson SH : In vitro conversion of Borrelia burgdorferi to cystic forms in spinal fluid, and transformation to mobile spirochetes by incubation in BSK-H medium . Infection 26 , 144 – 150 ( 1998

Open access

. Gruntar I , Malovrh T , Murgia R , Cinco M : Conversion of Borrelia garinii cystic forms to motile spirochetes in vivo . APMIS 109 , 383 – 388 ( 2001 ) 26

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Jana Niemz, Stefanie Kliche, Marina C. Pils, Eliot Morrison, Annika Manns, Christian Freund, Jill R. Crittenden, Ann M. Graybiel, Melanie Galla, Lothar Jänsch, and Jochen Huehn

-but not for chemokine-triggered LFA-1 conversion to an open headpiece high-affinity state . J Immunol 185 , 7394 – 7404 ( 2010 ) 8. Tan SM

Open access

. Zool. Fenn. 42 : 421 – 432 . Veselý , M. and B. Šarapatka . 2008 . Effects of conversion to organic farming on carabid beetles (Carabidae) in experimental fields in the Czech

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. Brorson O , Brorson SH : In vitro conversion of Borrelia burgdorferi to cystic forms in spinal fluid, and transformation to mobile spirochetes by incubation in BSK-H medium . Infection 26 , 144 – 150 ( 1998

Open access

effectively reduce cecal Campylobacter colonization. Moreover, supplementation of EOs has been described to have beneficial effects on body weight, growth rate and feed conversion [ 38–41 ]. A supplementation is able to improve feed digestibility [ 42 ] and

Open access

Akademii Sztuki Wojennej nr 2 . 2016 ; 103 : 158 – 74 . 287. Geissler E . Conversion of BTW facilities: lessons from German history . In: Geissler E , editor. Conversion of former BTW facilities . Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publisher ; 1998 . p

Open access

, is lipid oxidation, which leads to the formation of rancid odour and flavour ( Domínguez et al., 2019 ). Meat discolouration is caused mainly by the conversion of oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin ( Faustman et al., 2010 ). These two processes, causing

Open access