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This article presents two grammaticalization types of separable perfective particles in Estonian. The bounding particle (BP) use of the   semantically most bleached Estonian separable verbal particle ära is demonstrated to display a distinct status in the grammaticalization of aspect. The special character of the BP is illustrated by contrasting the BP ära, on the one hand, with the well-established use of the particle with the same form (ära) and, on the other hand, several other perfective particles, which are referred to here as instances of completive particles (CP). The study of differences brings out the following novel facts about the BP. The particle occurs only in context-dependent, agentive sentences that typically describe the achievement of planned or foreseen endpoints of events. The perfective sentences with the BP contain primarily activity verbs; however, verbs in such sentences can belong to all aspectual classes, and the combinations are transparent. The occurrence of an argument that would serve as a “measure” for the event is thereby optional. The evidence that the BP and verb combinations do not allow for the derivation of adjectives (participles) also demonstrates the difference between the principles of combining a verb and a BP as opposed to a CP.

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Parsing and beyond

Tools and resources for Estonian

Acta Linguistica Academica
Authors: Kadri Muischnek, Kaili Müürisep, and Tiina Puolakainen

. 31 – 40 . Ballesteros , Miguel and Joakim Nivre . 2014 . MaltOptimizer: Fast and effective parser optimization . Natural Language Engineering 22 . 187 – 213 . Erelt , Mati . 2003 . Estonian language . Tallinn : Estonian Academy

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The paper explores the nature of cross-linguistic influence in morphology. 30 Estonian (a closely related L1) and 30 Russian (a non-related L1) beginning and advanced learners of L2 Finnish were tested for their skills in nominal inflection in three different tasks: separate nouns of morphophonologically varying inflectional categories to be inflected in several plural case forms in writing, the same nouns to be used in a narrative writing task and in an oral inflection task. The nouns were selected to represent various degrees of inflectional and/or semantic similarity between Finnish and Estonian (for Russian no such similarity exists). The results indicate that—in opposition to what has been previously claimed—not only does cross-linguistic influence exist within the domain of morphology but it also varies systematically across inflectional categories and between groups at different levels of general skills in Finnish.

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& Policy Research . Estonian Ministry of Economic Affairs ( 2015 ): Eesti eksportööride konkurentsivõime uuring [Estonian Exporters Competitiveness Study. Final Report]. Talinn : Estonian Ministry of Economic

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) [26] A. Orav , T. Kailas , M. Müürisepp , and J. Kann , Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Chemistry , 48 ( 1 ), 30 ( 1999

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Helasoja, V. V., Lahelma, E., Prattala, R. S. és mtsai: Determinants of daily smoking in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Finland in 1994–2002. Scand. J. Public Health, 2006, 34 , 353–362. Prattala R. S

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marking of the predicative in Estonian . Linguistica Uralica 3 . 166 – 174 . Filchenko , Andrey . 2017 . The ‘essive’ in Eastern Khanty . In de Groot ( 2017 d, 353

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– 34 . Bacskai-Atkari , Julia and Gergely Kántor . 2012 . Deletion in Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian comparatives . Finno-Ugric Languages and Linguistics 1 . 44 – 66

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Estonia . Higher Education , Vol. 61. No. 6. pp. 679–692. 2 Bocsi V. (2013) Munkaértékek a felsőoktatásban. In: Darvai T. (ed.) Felsőoktatás és

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male and female physicians: a cohort study in Estonia. Scand. J. Public Health, 2002, 30 , 133–140. Baburin A. Cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality in male and female

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