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, Austria, Estonia and surprisingly, Italy which had no XP values below 100%.) Third, the overall size of cuts was tiny as already discussed. These all point to the relevance of burdens that internal devaluation imposes on firms ( Section 2 ). The second

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& Policy Research . Estonian Ministry of Economic Affairs ( 2015 ): Eesti eksportööride konkurentsivõime uuring [Estonian Exporters Competitiveness Study. Final Report]. Talinn : Estonian Ministry of Economic

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European Countries: Estonia, Finland, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland . CASE Research Paper No. 476. Kapitány , B. – Spéder , Z. ( 2017 ): Hitek, tévhitek és tények a népességcsökkenés megállításáról – Demográfiai kihívások és kezelési

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, one would expect a possible influence of tax reform on CEE countries' growth performance. CEE countries have successively adopted single PIT rates since the mid-1990s. Estonia and Lithuania were the first among these countries to adopt such a system in

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Estonia: An Extended Network Perspective . PhD dissertation. Tartu, Finland : Tartu University Press . Vissak , T. ( 2004 ): The Importance and Limitations of the Network

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of social policy, there are five social policy models in Europe, defined as Nordic, Anglo-Saxon, Continental, Southern European and Central Eastern European (CEE). The countries of Northern Europe are represented by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland

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statement to service providers in order to facilitate their tax returns. In Estonia, the tax authorities are working together with platform operators to develop a system whereby tax is withheld directly via the platform to facilitate income tax collection

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‘Other current expenditure’; ‘Interest’ refer to the interest paid by the general government on public debt Interest spending relative to GDP is highest in Italy, followed by Portugal, Greece 5 and Hungary. Estonia hardly pays any interest due to its

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exceeded 50% of the EU-28 average, which is almost 1.5 times lower than the values reported by Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Croatia, and Hungary, almost twice lower than the Czech Republic and Slovenia, three times lower compared to Belgium

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.e. Czechia, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, plus Slovenia, and the three Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. 7 The literature also assumes this – see for example, Hárs (2019) , who refers to Ravenstein's seminal work, The Law of Migration from 1885

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