Authors:Judit Mádl-Szőnyi, Magdolna Virág, and Ferenc Zsemle
Budapest is famous for its thermal springs and spas and outstanding thermal water resources. In the 21st century renewable energy utilization — including the use of geothermal energy — became the focus of interest. Improving the use of the different forms of geothermal energy requires the assessment of their possibilities. The potential for deep geothermal doublet systems for direct heating in Budapest was evaluated based on the temperature conditions, the depth and reconnaissance of the carbonate reservoir. NW Buda is not appropriate for thermal water exploration. SW and SE Budapest have better temperature conditions but the lithology of the reservoir is uncertain. Beneath Pest the thermal water is well exploitable. It is obvious from the map of the region that the area is promising; however, due to the hydraulic continuity of the system, reinjection is desirable. Considering the reliability of the employed data the geothermal potential map is suitable only for general orientation and guidance.
The geothermal potential map for Groundwater-sourced Heat Pump Systems (GHPS; scale = 1:40,000) was assembled by evaluating the thickness and appearance of the gravel strata and water table, complemented by the sulfate content as an aggressive component of groundwater. The original geothermal potential map series can be used for the evaluation of potential sites in Budapest. It can be concluded that the Buda side of the Danube River is almost entirely unsuitable for shallow groundwater-based heat pump installations. The only areas under consideration are Óbuda and the riverbanks. On the Pest side, there is no gravel in the central part; the largest areas close to the river and in the immediate surroundings are uncertain, with patches of suitable and possible categories. The southern and eastern area of Pest is the most prospective for GHPS installation. The potential maps only consider natural parameters; however, installation may be strongly influenced by the urbanization and the city environment.
Authors:M. Zheng, L. Zhang, H. P. Teng, J. Hu, and M. L. Hu
, Li Y. S. , Tian Y. Y. , et al. ( 2014 ), Effect of blade installation angle on power efficiency of resistance type VAWT by CFD study . International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering , 6 ( 1 ), 1 – 7
It is a prime aim to ensure a suitable comfort level in case of office buildings. The productivity of office employees is directly influenced by the comfort. Thermal discomfort and poor indoor air quality deteriorate the intensity and quality of human work. We investigated the comfort in office buildings with on-site measurements during the summer season. The office buildings were operating with different HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) systems: ducted fan-coil with suspended ceiling, installation, non-ducted fan-coil with floor-mounted installation, active chilled beam with fresh air supply.
We evaluated the thermal comfort under PMV (Predicted Mean Vote), PPD (Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied), the local discomfort based on DR (Draught Rate) and the IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) based on carbon dioxide concentration. The comfort measurements were evaluated. The measurements were evaluated with scientific research methods, comfort categories based on the requirements of CR 1752. The results of this comparison were presented in this article.
( 2001 ), Dry installation of a radiant floor or wall hydronic heating system, metal radiating plates that attach to the edges of side-by-side boards and provide metal slots for holding hot water
path. Further detail on preparation, installation, operation, data processing, and results can be found in the study by Kovács and Mészáros ( 2011 ).
The inelastic deformation in rock masses is usually coupled with acoustic emission (AE
Authors:Gianfranco Tamburelli and Tetiana Olexandrivna Kovalenko
liability of the operator of a nuclear installation and enhanced means for securing adequate and equitable compensation (September 12, 1997, in force since 3.10.2003) 24 and the Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention (February 12, 2004; not yet in force
losses and against summer heat loads. The east and west sides are particularly disadvantageous in office and industrial installations during the summer cooling periods, as the solar load may increase up to 100% relative to a southern orientation