Authors:Yongting Shi, Anna Mária Tamás, and Gergely Sztranyák
1 Introduction Rural landscapes are terrestrial and aquatic areas co-produced by human-nature interaction used for the production of food and other renewable natural resources. Rural landscapes are multifunctional resources [ 1 ]. It carries the
Authors:Katalin Balogné Bérces and Patrick Honeybone
1 Introduction: the current landscape of phonological theory The current theoretical landscape in phonology (at the end of the second decade of the 21st century) is healthily diverse (cf. Hannahs & Bosch 2017, chapter 1). One way to show this is to
Authors:E. Addicott, S. Laurance, M. Lyons, D. Butler, and J. Neldner
Plant communities in extensive landscapes are often mapped remotely using detectable patterns based on vegetation structure and canopy species with a high relative cover. A plot-based classification which includes species with low relative canopy cover and ignores vegetation structure, may result in plant communities not easily reconcilable with the landscape patterns represented in mapping. In our study, we investigate the effects on classification outcomes if we (1) remove rare species based on canopy cover, and (2) incorporate vegetation structure by weighting species’ cover by different measures of vegetation height. Using a dataset of 101 plots of savanna vegetation in north-eastern Australia we investigated first, the effect of removing rare species using four cover thresholds (1, 5, 8 and 10% contribution to total cover) and second, weighting species by four height measures including actual height as well as continuous and categorical transformations. Using agglomerative hierarchical clustering we produced a classification for each dataset and compared them for differences in: patterns of plot similarity, clustering, species richness and evenness, and characteristic species. We estimated the ability of each classification to predict species cover using generalised linear models. We found removing rare species at any cover threshold produced characteristic species appearing to correspond to landscape scale changes and better predicted species cover in grasslands and shrublands. However, in woodlands it made no difference. Using actual height of vegetation layer maintained vegetation structure, emphasised canopy and then sub-canopy species in clustering, and predicted species cover best of the height-measures tested. Thus, removing rare species and weighting species by height are useful techniques for identifying plant communities from plot-based classifications which are conceptually consistent with those in landscape scale mapping. This increases the confidence of end-users in both the classifications and the maps, thus enhancing their use in land management decisions.
The essay analyses the fourth and fifth amendments of the Hungarian Fundamental Law with special respect to the opinion of the Venice Commission and the resolution of the European Parliament. It will be pointed out that the fourth amendment transferred several legal regulations into the Fundamental Law which were previously qualified as unconstitutional by the Hungarian Constitutional Court. The Fundamental Law contains at the same time the declaration of a fundamental right and the unconstitutional limitation of it by the latter regulation. The inconsistency is evident, therefore the Constitutional Court has to choose in the future between the contradictory constitutional regulations. A possibility to solve this dilemma could be the separation of the legal norms of the constitution as lex generalis (e.g. rule of law, human dignity) and lex specialis which could not derogate the lex generalis, and ca nnot be applied accordingly.
and History 3 : 75 – 88 ; 155–167.
Ilyés , Zoltán 2007 A tájhasználat változásai és a történeti kultúrtáj 18-20. századi fejlődése Gyimesben [Changes in Land Use and the Development of the Historical Cultural Landscape in Gyimes in the 18–20th
rural settlements in Flanders. Perpectives on a ‘non-villa’ landscape in extram Galliarum . In: Roymans , N . – Derks , T . (ed.): Villa landscapes in the Roman north. Economy, culture and lifestyles. Amsterdam Archaeological Studies 17