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Abstract  

Bibliometric counting methods need to be validated against perceived notions of authorship credit allocation, and standardized by rejecting methods with poor fit or questionable ethical implications. Harmonic counting meets these concerns by exhibiting a robust fit to previously published empirical data from medicine, psychology and chemistry, and by complying with three basic ethical criteria for the equitable sharing of authorship credit. Harmonic counting can also incorporate additional byline information about equal contribution, or the elevated status of a corresponding last author. By contrast, several previously proposed counting schemes from the bibliometric literature including arithmetic, geometric and fractional counting, do not fit the empirical data as well and do not consistently meet the ethical criteria. In conclusion, harmonic counting would seem to provide unrivalled accuracy, fairness and flexibility to the long overdue task of standardizing bibliometric allocation of publication and citation credit.

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Abstract  

A collection of coauthored papers is the new norm for doctoral dissertations in the natural and biomedical sciences, yet there is no consensus on how to partition authorship credit between PhD candidates and their coauthors. Guidelines for PhD programs vary but tend to specify only a suggested range for the number of papers to be submitted for evaluation, sometimes supplemented with a requirement for the PhD candidate to be the principal author on the majority of submitted papers. Here I use harmonic counting to quantify the actual amount of authorship credit attributable to individual PhD graduates from two Scandinavian universities in 2008. Harmonic counting corrects for the inherent inflationary and equalizing biases of routine counting methods, thereby allowing the bibliometrically identifiable amount of authorship credit in approved dissertations to be analyzed with unprecedented accuracy. Unbiased partitioning of authorship credit between graduates and their coauthors provides a post hoc bibliometric measure of current PhD requirements, and sets a de facto baseline for the requisite scientific productivity of these contemporary PhD’s at a median value of approximately 1.6 undivided papers per dissertation. Comparison with previous census data suggests that the baseline has shifted over the past two decades as a result of a decrease in the number of submitted papers per candidate and an increase in the number of coauthors per paper. A simple solution to this shifting baseline syndrome would be to benchmark the amount of unbiased authorship credit deemed necessary for successful completion of a specific PhD program, and then monitor for departures from this level over time. Harmonic partitioning of authorship credit also facilitates cross-disciplinary and inter-institutional analysis of the scientific output from different PhD programs. Juxtaposing bibliometric benchmarks with current baselines may thus assist the development of harmonized guidelines and transparent transnational quality assurance procedures for doctoral programs by providing a robust and meaningful standard for further exploration of the causes of intra- and inter-institutional variation in the amount of unbiased authorship credit per dissertation.

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Abstract  

In situ leaching of uranium ores with sulfuric acid during active uranium mining activity on the Gessenheap has caused longstanding environmental problems of acid mine drainage and elevated concentrations of uranium. To study there remediation measures the test site Gessenwiese, a recultivated former uranium mining heap near Ronnenburg/East Thuringia/Germany, was installed as a part of a research program of the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena to study, among other techniques, the phytoremediation capacity of native and selected plants towards uranium. In the first step the uranium speciation in surface seepage and soil pore waters from Gessenwiese, ranging in pH from 3.2 to 4.0, were studied by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Both types of water samples showed mono-exponential luminescence decay, indicating the presence of only one major species. The detected emission bands were found at 477.5, 491.8, 513.0, 537.2, 562.3, and 590.7 nm in case of the surface water samples, and were found at 477.2, 493.2, 513.8, 537.0, 562.4, and 590.0 nm in case of the soil water samples. These characteristic peak maxima together with the observed mono-exponential decay indicated that the uranium speciation in the seepage and soil pore waters is dominated by the uranium (VI) sulfate species UO2SO4(aq). Due to the presence of luminescence quenchers in the natural water samples the measured luminescence lifetimes of the UO2SO4(aq) species of 1.0–2.6 μs were reduced in comparison to pure uranium sulfate solutions, which show a luminescence lifetime of 4.7 μs. These results convincingly show that in the pH range of 3.2–4.0 TRLFS is a suitable and very useful technique to study the uranium speciation in naturally occurring water samples.

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nil rings need not be nil, Journal of Algebra , 233 (2003), 427–436. Smoktunowicz A. Polynomial ring over nil rings need not be nil Journal of

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Cohesion and news translation

An exploratory study of shifts of cohesion in the Hungarian-English translation of news stories

Acta Linguistica Hungarica
Authors: Krisztina Károly, Henrietta Ábrányi, Szilvia Deák, Ágnes Laszkács, Andrea Mészáros, and Márta Seresi

Expertise and explicitation in the translation process 2005 Enkvist, Nils Erik. 1990. Seven problems in the study of coherence

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. Another look at preposition stranding . In B. Erman , P. Shaw , G. Melchers and P. Sudnkvis (eds.) A Festschrift for Nils-Lennart Johansson . Stockholm : Stockholm University Press . 319 – 343

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. Melzer, Nils.: Interpretative Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under International Humanitarian Law . ISRC 2009. http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/direct-participation-report_ res

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Wiesława Ferenc, Beata Cristóvão, Jan Sarzyński, and Paweł Sadowski

.67 13.12 13.20 NiL 2 ·H 2 O 55.70 54.99 4.64 4.29 13.67 13

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> accessed 13 June 2017. 8. Melzer , Nils , ‘Interpretative Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under International

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