Authors:Masoumeh Dorri Giv, Karim Ghazikhanlou Sani, Majid Alizadeh, Ali Valinejadi, and Hesamedin Askari Majdabadi
Noise pollution is an unwanted or undesirable sound in peripheral environment. In other words, it is indefinite and irregular combination of sounds [ 1 ]. Noise pollution has many effects on humans, including
Authors:Bert Wolterbeek, Susana Sarmento, and Tona Verburg
The present paper focuses on biomonitoring of elemental atmospheric pollution, which is reviewed in terms of larger-scaled
biomonitoring surveys in an epidemiological context. Based on the literature information, today’s availability of solar-powered
small air filter samplers and fibrous ion exchange materials is regarded as adequate or an even better alternative for biomonitor
transplant materials used in small-scaled set-ups, but biomonitors remain valuable in larger-scaled set-ups and in unforeseen
releases and accidental situations. In the latter case, in-situ biomonitoring is seen as the only option for a retrospective
study: biomoniors are there before one even knows that they are needed. For biomonitoring, nuclear analytical techniques are
discussed as key techniques, especially because of the necessary multi-element assessments in both source recognition and
single-element interpretation. To live up to the demands in an epidemiological context, larger-scaled in-situ biomonitoring
asks for large numbers of samples, and consequently, for large total sample masses, this all to ensure representation of both
local situations and survey area characteristics. Possibly, this point should direct studies into new “easy-to-sample” biomonitor
organisms, of which high masses and numbers may be obtained in field work, rather than continue with biomonitors such as lichens.
This also means that both sample handling and processing are of key importance in these studies. To avoid problems in comparability
of analytical general procedures in milling, homogenization and digestion of samples of large masses, the paper proposes to
involve only few but high-quality laboratories in the total element assessment routines. In this respect, facilities that
can handle large sample masses in the assessment of element concentrations are to be preferred. This all highlights the involvement
of large-sample-volume nuclear facilities, which, however, should be upgraded and automated in their operation to ensure the
necessary sample throughput in larger-scaled biomonitoring.
Authors:Máté Krisztián Kardos and Adrienne Clement
2. WW = wastewater. ∗ Values indicate diffuse pollution, or its lack and, except for the slope, are meant relative to watershed area. ∗∗ Values indicate point sources pollution values and area meant relative to long term mean flow of the receiving
Authors:Dávid László Tárnoki, Ádám Domonkos Tárnoki, László Csáthy, and Mark J. Travers
, Budapest, 2012.
Tárnoki, D. L., Tárnoki, A. D., Hyland, A., et al.: Measurement of indoor smoke pollution in public places in
Authors:Dariusz Szychowski, Barbara Pacewska, Grzegorz Makomaski, Janusz Zieliński, Wiesława Ciesińska, and Tatiana Brzozowska
–polymer. These materials demonstrated high capacity to reduce organic pollutions from sewage.
Raw materials used and methods of sample preparation
As carriers of coal pyrolyzate, granulated coal tar pitch produced by Institute for
137Cs activity concentrations were determined in samples of macrophytes Polysiphonia fucoides (red algae) and Zostera marina (vascular plant) collected during the entire vegetation season in the Gulf of Gdańsk in the southern Baltic Sea. The measurements
showed considerable seasonality of 137Cs activity in both species; an increase of cesium concentrations was observed from spring to autumn with maximal levels 49.1 ± 1.4 Bq kgd.w.−1 (P. fucoides) and 14.5 ± 1.0 Bq kgd.w.−1 (Z. marina) in late autumn. 137Cs concentrations observed in a given season are the result of a number of processes, the intensity of which can differ depending
on external environmental conditions. The effects of these processes can differ and their directions can frequently be opposite
to one another. The examined macrophytobenthic plant species could serve as bioindicators of radionuclide pollution for monitoring
purposes on condition that the samples of plants are taken within a strictly defined period of the year to give comparable
results and to supply realistic information about pollution levels.