Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for :

  • "civil war" x
  • User-accessible content x
Clear All

After the battle of Thapsus that took place on 6 April 46 Caesar kept delaying his return to Rome for a long while, until 25 July — he stopped to stay on Sardinia — and this cannot be attributed fully to implementing measures and actions necessary in Africa since they could have been carried out by his new proconsul, C. Sallustius Crispus too. The triumph held owing to the victory in Africa — in which they carried around representations of the death of M. Petreius, M. Porcius Cato and Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica — must have further grated on the nerves of the aristocracy of Rome, because it was meant to symbolise Caesar’s victory both over Iuba and the senate. It was after that that Cicero broke his silence and delivered Pro Marcello in the senate, which was both oratio suasoria and gratiarum actio for the pardon granted to Marcellus, by which Caesar wanted to assure the senate of his benevolence and wanted to show off his power by his autocratic gesture. Pro Ligario delivered in 46 has been considered a classical example of deprecatio by both the antique and modern literature, and in historical terms it is not a less noteworthy work since from the period following the civil war Pro Marcello, having been delivered in early autumn of 46 in the senate, is Cicero’s first oration made on the Forum, that is, before the general public, in which praising Caesar’s clementia he seemingly legitimised dictatorship. First, we describe the historical background of the oratio and the process of the proceedings (I.); then, we examine the issue if the proceedings against Ligarius can be considered a real criminal trial. (II.) After the analysis of the genre of the speech, deprecatio (III.) we analyse the appearance of Caesar’s clementia in Pro Ligario. (IV.) Finally, we focus on the means of style of irony, and highlight an interesting element of the Caesar-Cicero relation and how the orator voices his conviction that he considers the dictator’s power and clementia illegitimate. (V.)

Full access

. Meron , Theodor , War Crimes Law Comes of Age. Essays (Oxford University Press 1998 ). Nier III , Charles Lewis , ‘ The Yugoslavian Civil War

Full access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Hans Kollenda, Hagen Frickmann, Rania Ben Helal, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Habiba Naija, Mohamed Sélim El Asli, Melanie Egold, Joachim Jakob Bugert, Susann Handrick, Roman Wölfel, Farouk Barguellil, and Mohamed Ben Moussa

on multidrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria in patients from war- and crisis-haunted neighboring Libya [ 1 , 4 – 18 ], the resistance problem in Tunisia started much earlier than the Libyan civil war. As early as in the late 90s of the last

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Hagen Frickmann, Thomas Köller, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Klaus-Peter Ebert, Martin Müller, Werner Wenzel, Renate Gatzer, Ulrich Schotte, Alfred Binder, Romy Skusa, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski, Christian Rückert, and Bernd Kreikemeyer

colonization rates with multidrug-resistant bacteria were also identified in Syrian civilians who were treated at Israeli hospitals after fleeing the Syrian civil war [ 2 ]. Similar experience was found with Syrian refugees in German hospitals [ 3 – 5

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Kouassi N’Guessan, Timothée Ouassa, Anna S. Dean, Riccardo Alagna, Guy Damien Adagra, Valeri Ibode, Daniela M. Cirillo, and Jacquemin Kouakou

implemented since 2002, Côte d'Ivoire suffered a civil war from 2002 to 2011. It is possible that disruption to health services during this period may have negatively impacted on the control of TB and facilitated the emergence of resistant strains. Prior to

Open access

communist Constitution was adopted by the legislature. Almost at the same time in East Asia, Chinese Communist Party with Chinese people just finished two wars, Anti-Japan War and Civil War. Chinese Communist Party won these wars and established its

Free access

easier comprehension, a few things should be clarified first. The time is the 1960s-70s, the hottest phase of the civil war in Vietnam. The location is the mountainous woodlands in the central Vietnamese province of Quảng Tri, north of Hue ( Figs. 1 - 2

Open access

plunged into a bloody civil war. The Republic of Congo also recorded the highest GNI per growth rate in a single year (28.44%) in 2015. In terms of ODA, Thailand recorded the lowest ODA of –938.59 million USD in 2003. This means that in 2003, Thailand was

Open access

the civil wars hindered the growth and development of the Chinese HE system. From 1949 onwards, it switched to the Soviet model which, for the next 16 years, generated rapid economic growth starting from a very low level of development. The Cultural

Open access

demonstrated that the wealth of US politicians during the American Civil War (1861–1865) grew at an unusually high rate, the most probable explanation of that phenomenon being the weakening of institutional constraints and freedom of press during the war

Open access