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Nero a halála után néhány évvel ismét feltűnt a római politika színpadán, a birodalom keleti tartományaiban, mégpedig legalább kétszer. Az ál-Nerók tevékenységén túl más politikai kalandorok hasonló történetei is ismertek a római történetírásban. A tanulmány elemzi az ismert hasonmások történeteit, bemutatva a közös motívumokat. Továbbá megpróbál magyarázatot adni az ál-Nerók kísérleteire az adott történelmi kontextusban.

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Thepurpose of this paper is to examine the state of the law in relation to the locusstandi of representative groups at the Union level. The paper has a dualthematic task: the assessment of the degree in which representative groups andtheir standing to challenge the validity of legislative measures can bedifferentiated from the Plaumann criterion and the identification of strategiesthat can improve the chances of interest groups to challenge under Art. 230 EC.The thesis adopted in response states that regrettably the ECJ's interpretation of the requirement of individual concern has been applied to representativegroups. After examining the jurisprudence in different areas and from theperspective of the arguments used by representative groups in order to bypassPlaumann, there does not seem to be any clear thematic or argumentativetypology that influences the ECJ. The only important element that could make adifference is the existence of documented participation by the representativebody that creates procedural rights. It is in this respect that the removal ofthe individual concern shadow can be achieved, namely through representativegroups being effective at what they are designed to do: lobbying. Therefore,the key to strengthening the standing claim is enhanced and certifiedparticipation.

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By focusing on the practice of constitutional courts this paper aims to present a qualitative-analytical tool which could contribute to a better (self-)understanding and evaluation of constitutional adjudication. Since the specific nature and the very existence of constitutional review necessitates an a priori reflection on the legitimacy, exact function and role of constitutional courts within the democratic system, a multidimensional model of democracy might give some insight into the theoretical background of the court’s decisions in this respect. This level of analysis focuses simply on the question of which ideal type of democracy might be inherent or envisioned in decisions taken by judges of constitutional courts.

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The article is the second part of an analysis that seeks to clarify the distinctive normativity of law, as it is reflected in the legal systems of constitutional democracies. It explores the ability of interpretive theories to capture the conceptual characteristics of the normativity of law. The article argues that it is its institutional character that makes the normativity of law distinctive. The normativity of law must be construed as a form of institutional normativity. The analysis of the institutional character of legal norms revolves around the idea of obligations. It implies that the distinctive normativity of law builds on normative guidance by authoritative institutions. The ability of the law to provide normative guidance is explained in terms of three types of reasons: moral reasons, compliance reasons and response reasons. An implication of this insight is that moral legitimacy is constitutive of the normativity of law. The article concludes with an exploration of the dimensions of moral legitimacy in law, and the way the interplay of the justificatory background to normative claims and the institutional features of law make false normativity in law possible.

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The concept of humanitarian intervention evolved as a subset of laws that govern the use of force and now, it occupies an institutional position alongside Security Council authorization and self-defense as a legitimate and legal reason for war. Humanitarian intervention and use of force both are highly controversial yet widely accepted. This paper will evaluate whether humanitarian intervention is legitimate under international law. Humanitarian intervention contradicts the United Nations Charter but state practice developments since the Second World War have made it legitimate under a number of circumstances. Those who have argued for its legitimacy cite international norms and state practice to support the assertion that the provision for military aggression is no longer what is enshrined in the UN Charter. The debate on the legality of humanitarian intervention indicates that it could either be legitimate or illegitimate depending on how one comprehends the construction, changing and representation of international law. It is certain that there are no definite answers to these questions. This uncertainty is now fundamental since the legitimacy of humanitarian intervention is indeterminate. Discussions over this law have not solved this puzzle. It remains legal and illegal at the same time, with recent cases not withstanding depending with the circumstances. This paper evaluates the repercussions of this finding for the sake of the rule of law in world politics. The paper suggests that customary prominence that scholars place on compliance with international law is misplaced. The power of international law from scholars’ point of view comes from its capacity to shape the terrain for balance of political power in international relations rather than differentiating rule followers and rule breakers. International law should be perceived as a resource for state use rather than a fixed standard of evaluating behavior.

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A Keszthely-kultúra fogalma az elmúlt 130 év alatt sokat változott. Az 568 és 630–650 közé keltezhető korai szakasz létét többen kétségbe vonták. A korai szakasz 11 lelőhelyét áttekintve a dolgozat azt igyekszik igazolni, hogy a korai avar korban relatív önállósággal bíró, Keszthely környéki keresztény népességet a tovább élő késő antik elemeken kívül döntően a kelet alpi, dalmáciai, balkáni és germán területekről bevándoroltak alkották. Megjelölésükre a Keszthely-kultúra korai szakasza a megfelelő elnevezés. A késői szakasz a korai szerves folytatása.

The concept of the Keszthely culture has changed significantly over the past 130 years. The legitimacy of the early phase dated between 568 and 630–650 has been challenged by some scholars. By reviewing eleven sites of the culture’s early phase, this study seeks to demonstrate that in addition to surviving late antique elements, the Christian population that lived in the Keszthely area and enjoyed a relative measure of independence was predominantly made up eastern Alpine, Dalmatian, Balkanic and Germanic immigrants. The label “early phase of the Keszthely culture” seems an adequate term for their description. The culture’s late phase is an organic continuation of the early one.

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Absztrakt:

A mobilitási lehetőségek és igények, valamint az oktatási rendszer funkciói szorosan összefüggnek. Fontos kérdés, vajon egy-egy képzéstípus kiszolgálja-e kliensei társadalmi igényeit. A magyar szakképzési rendszer egyre inkább kettészakad: míg az érettségit nyújtó képzésekben lehetőséget látnak a tanulók az előrelépésre, addig az érettségit nem adó képzések teljes zsákutcát jelentenek egy homogén társadalmi rétegnek. Ráadásul, a szakközépiskolák kliensei pont azokból kerülnek ki, akik számára jelenleg nem körvonalazódik az iskolai mobilitási csatornán kívül egyéb mobilitási lehetőség. Ilyen környezetben a lemorzsolódás, a korai iskolaelhagyás és az iskolai reziliencia vizsgálata kulcskérdés, hiszen ezek az atipikus tanulói magatartások áshatják alá leginkább egy-egy képzéstípus legitimitását. Jelen tanulmányban az iskolai reziliencia és a mobilitási szándék összefüggését keressük. Az Országos kompetenciamérés (OKM) 2016. évi 10. évfolyamos tanulói adatbázisának felhasználásával háromféle rezilienciaszámítást ismertetek. Azt vizsgálom, hogy miként alakul a reziliencia mértéke azok között, akik státuszmegőrzési szándékot vagy felfelé irányuló mobilitási vágyat fogalmaznak meg. Eredményeim szerint a mobilitási szándék és a reziliencia mértéke összefügg.

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Venture Growth by Building Legitimacy . Academy of Management Review 27 ( 3 ): 414 – 431 .

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Agreements ’, ( 2010 ) 62 World Politics 1 – 42 . VanDuzer , J. Anthony , ‘ Enhancing the Procedural Legitimacy of Investor-State Arbitration Through Transparency and Amicus

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konstytucjach (Wydawnictwo Sejmowe 2007 ) Buchanan , A. , Justice, Legitimacy, and Self Determination. Moral Foundations for International Law (Oxford University Press 2004

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