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Johnson, P.: Same Sex Marriage to be
Authors:Odette Janice van Brummen—Girigori and Abraham P. Buunk
The present research examined the consequences of father abandonment for the reproductive strategies of girls from the Caribbean island of Curaçao. The sample consisted of 189 girls with an average age of 19.11 (SD = 2.97). Respondents were categorized in three groups, namely: ‘early father absence’ (abandoned between 0–5 years of age), ‘late father absence’ (abandoned between 6–13 years of age) and ‘father presence’ (father present during childhood). The results showed that compared to ‘late father absence’ girls and ‘father presence’ girls, ‘early father absence’ girls initiated sexual intercourse at a significant younger age. Moreover, they were less interested in getting married and in having grandchildren. These differences could not be explained by differences in educational level of the participants or occupational level of the father and the mother. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the age of menarche, the total number of sexual partners and the desire to have children. From an evolutionary life history perspective, we discuss possible explanations for, and implications of, these findings.
In Hungary the codification of the civil law is just now progressing; the National Assembly is currently debating the Proposition for the new Civil Code replacing the Code of 1959. The Bill also affects the Hungarian notariat, which proudly looks back to a past of 700 years, and is conferring several new powers on the organisation.In the medieval Hungary the activities requiring public authenticity were performed by two types of institutions, the locus authenticus operated by the Church and the secular civil law notary. The loci authentici were succeeded by the Latin type of notariat in 1875. Following the 1948 Communist takeover, the Latin type of notariat fell victim to the transformation of the justice system after the Soviet model. It was not until after 1991 that the private type of notariat in harmony with the Hungarian traditions could resume its operation in the end.At present two main groups of cases fall within the competence of the civil law notaries: conducting certain non-litigious proceedings, and preparing notarial deeds. The new Civil Code would refer several new non-litigious proceedings to the competence of the civil law notaries, for example keeping the register of the matrimonial and conjugal property contracts, conducting divorce upon the agreed request of the parties, as well as the dissolution of common law marriage upon the agreed request of the parties. In conclusion the codification enlarges the sphere of tasks of the notariat in the territory of non-litigious proceedings, thus wishing to strengthen the Hungarian Notariat’s official character.
The Visegrad Group, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, which forms the core of Central and Eastern Europe once more became constitutional and democratic states as a result of the changes of 1989. The global economic and financial crisis that began in 2008 has naturally shaken up the Central European region, but the intensity of its impact varied from country to country. The period between 2008 and 2010 hit Hungary the hardest, which led to the landslide political transformation of 2010. However, the economic and financial crisis that began in 2008 did not in itself lead to a new wave of constitutional legislation in Central Europe. The creation of a new constitutional identity in Hungary with the adoption of the Fundamental Law of 2011 has more to do with the local, specific political, social and perhaps partially legal historical conditions. At this time, the other Visegrad countries can be characterised by maintenance of the constitutional status quo or only partial amendments. It is true that in these countries the turbulence caused by the crisis has not yet lead to a single party or coalition achieving the qualified majority required for constitutional reform. The situation in Poland after 2015 is still open but the new government does not have the necessary majority for the adoption of new constitution. The constitutional amendments adopted after 2008 were only a partial reaction to the great economic and financial crisis. Rather, many amendments were reflections on structural problems that had existed previously or problems arising in the course of day-to-day politics that had not been fully considered previously or they introduced long-debated and still timely changes.
Among new trends, the protective measures applicable to natural assets and waters were introduced in the interest of future generations. These were inserted in a very forceful manner into the Hungarian and Slovakian constitutional systems during the post-crisis period. The reinforcement of such an ecological identity could be interpreted as a positive development. However, the public law documents of the region are also characterised by a certain conservative ‘revolutionary’ mood including the definition of marriage as a relationship between a man and a woman; some family law measures aimed at improving demographic conditions and the passages of the Hungarian Fundamental Law concerning a society based on work. The function of constitutional courts is also beginning to be re-evaluated in the region, mainly in Hungary and Poland.
If we realize that in the first constitutional laws of modern constitutionalism (such as the Constitution of the USA of 1787, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the Polish Constitution of 3 May 1791 and the French Constitution of 3 September 1791), the contents of the preambles corresponded to contemporary chapters defining the principles of the systems of state government, while the opening chapter of the Polish Constitution of April 2, 1997 includes 29 articles, a question arises whether it was necessary to precede that Constitution with a preamble. Introductions to constitutions are part of the Polish systemic tradition: they featured in the Constitution of 1791, as well as in the so-called March Constitution of 1921, the Constitution of the Polish People’s Republic of 1952 and the so-called Small Constitution of 1992, whereas the so-called April Constitution of 1935 did not have one.Like those of other states, the major contents of the Preamble to the Constitution include a solemn proclamation of those principles and assumptions that its makers found particularly important in light of the state’s history and contemporaneous situation. Setting these out explicitly was assumed to further the goal of integrating consecutive generations around a certain system of values as well as legitimising the system of government that was thereby established. This is why the Preamble indicates the entity who acts as the constitutional legislator (pouvoir constituant) as “the Polish Nation-all citizens of the Republic”, describes the Constitution itself as the “the basic law for the State”, characterizes the historical context in which the fundamental law was adopted and- most significantly-lists all the basic goals of the Polish State and the fundamental principles underlying the fundamental law.The reader may find it striking that the Preamble contents largely overlap, or at least are not coordinated with, the wording of provisions of the first chapter, entitled “The Republic”. This chapter is, as we have mentioned, very long and-as the title suggests-not only does it list the classic principles of the state government system, but it also gives quite an exhaustive description of the Polish national community in all its complexity (including the state’s main tasks and symbols, but also, among other things, references to the institutions of civil society, the definition of marriage enjoying the protection of the state, the duty to take care of war invalids, etc.).
Authors:Ede Kékes, István Barna, Tenno Daiki, and Gergely Dankovics
Bevezetés: A dohányzás káros hatásai jelentős népegészségügyi
kérdést jelentenek az egész világon. Célkitűzés: A Magyarország
Átfogó Egészségvédelmi Szűrőprogramja 2010–2020–2030 (MÁESZ) keretében a 2010 és
2018 közötti időszakban végzett szűrések eredményeinek bemutatása és összevetése
a nemzetközi adatokkal. Módszer: A 9 éves, folyamatos szűrés
során 71 922 nő és 60 934 férfi adatait elemeztük a 18–80 év közötti
populációban, és vizsgáltuk a napi rendszerességgel dohányzók előfordulását. Az
adatok gyűjtése speciális szűrési adatlapok segítségével történt asszisztencia
mellett. Eredmények: A 9 év átlagában a szűrésen megjelentek
közül a férfiak 24,4%-a, a nők 24,2%-a rendszeresen dohányzik. A dohányzás
prevalenciája 2012 és 2015 között átmeneti szignifikáns csökkenést mutatott,
majd 2016-tól újra emelkedni kezdett. A hullámvölgy egybeesik a nemzeti
dohányboltok nyitási időszakával. Férfiaknál a fiatal felnőtt korban (18–25 év)
szignifikánsan nagyobb volt a dohányzók aránya, mint a nőknél. A későbbi
életszakaszban a különbség kiegyenlítődött, sőt 46–55 év között a nőknél volt
nagyobb, a dohányzás prevalenciája. A két nem között a dohányzási szokásokban
eltérés áll fenn, ami a nőknél feltehetően a házassággal, anyasággal hozható
összefüggésbe. 56 éves kor után mindkét nem esetében rohamosan csökkent a
dohányzók aránya. A magyarországi dohányzásprevalencia-átlagok minden
korcsoportban szignifikánsan meghaladják az európai és világátlagokat. A
középkorú nőknél észlelt átmeneti emelkedést az európai felmérésnél is leírták.
Következtetések: Hazánkban 2010-hez képest a dohányzók
aránya csökkent, de a 2015 után észlelt újabb emelkedési hullám nem kedvező
jelenség. Aggasztónak találjuk a dohányzó nők magas arányát. Orv Hetil. 2019;