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The Article gives a general overview of the Hungarian constitutional and legal framework for the participation of national minorities in the decision-making. The relatively low number of people belonging to national minorities in Hungary as well as the scattered patterns of their settlement and some aspects of the Hungarian legal traditions underlie the choice of the so called personal autonomy approach. The minorities can establish via a special electing mechanism local and national self-governments enjoying consultative and truly public law type rule-making and administrative competences. Having given the proper interpretation of the relevant article of the Constitution, the Constitutional Court also contributed to the birth of the Act on the Rights of Minorities. The basic reason behind the creation of a very complicated, multilevel institutional complex is that in this way, educational and cultural needs of minorities of different scale can be represented in a relatively coherent manner. This does not exclude at all the possibility of bringing modifications to the legal text in the light of a decade's experience.

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Hungarian Journal of Legal Studies
Authors: Oleksandra Kolohoida, Iryna Lukach, Valeriia Poiedynok, and Anastasiia Prokopiuk

due time, all developed corporate legal orders recognized the need of establishing a legal framework for buying out shares from minority shareholders in case of concentration of interest that, as a rule, exceeds 90%, at one person’s hands. Directive

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1 INTRODUCTION For the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and interwar Czechoslovakia, the national issue had an existential significance. These days they are referred to as national minorities but at the time of monarchy it might have been more appropriate

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INTRODUCTION Bilateral agreements on the protection of the national minorities’ rights have existed for a long time in international law. 1 At the same time, their significance and role after the fall of the Berlin Wall have been particularly

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This article discusses the position of legal anthropology among the legal sciences and its interdisciplinary character through the example of the socio-legal studies of the Hungarian Roma minority. The first part illustrates the place of legal anthropology among the other legal and social disciplines, and its role in legal thinking, by the analysis of a practical question, “What can we do to improve the social position of the Hungarian Roma minority by legal means?” The second part considers the importance of legal anthropology in the Hungarian Roma studies, briefly sketching the characteristics of the ethnological, sociological and cultural anthropological approaches. Finally, the article surveys the insights gained from the socio-legal studies of the Hungarian Roma minority over the last two decades. It highlights the inspiring results of legal anthropological studies, and also the difficulties contemporary research has to face.

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The Polish Constitution adopted on 2 April 1997, for the first time after the war, contains a provision dedicated exclusively to protecting national and ethnic minorities, however without a definition of those two categories. The legislator extended the rights of national and ethnic minorities beyond those identified in the Article 35. The extension of such rights also results from international agreements. Thus far there is no statute regulating in a comprehensive and complete manner the situation of national and ethnic minorities (the Constitution does not make its adoption mandatory), the legal regulations concerning these issues are dispersed. The problem of legal definition of the national minority appeared in connection with the initiative of the formal recognition of the Union of People of Silesian Minority. Its application has been rejected by Polish courts for the reason of non-existence of such a minority and for the attempt of abuse of the electoral privilege granted to national minorities. The Supreme Court's position has been confirmed by the Chamber and then by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights. However the 2002 national census revealed a new phenomenon of the Silesian minority: 3% of the inhabitants of the region declared their affinity to Silesian nationality.

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Oberwart ( Osuch, 2008 ). The authorities and the Oberwart community, wanting to help the Romani minority after the 1995 terrorist attack, in which four Romani were killed, opened a company employing over a dozen of Romani women. The company cooperated with

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Ohidy , A. , & Forray , K. R. ( 2019 ). Lifelong learning and the roma minority in central and eastern europe . Published by Emerald Publishing Ltd . ( ISBN: 978-1-83867-260-7 ). “Preparation depends on the individual, but opportunity depends

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the Tyranny of the Righteous Minority. Quilette, 2017. február 2. 6 Rónay, Z. (2017) Egyéni és testületi felelősség a felsőoktatási intézmények vezetésében. PhD-értekezés.

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Introduction According to the 2011 Population Census in Croatia, 16,975 persons declared themselves as members of the Roma national minority. This number does not reflect the real situation. According to the estimate by the

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