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− M -1   K       0 ]     ,     b u = [ 0 − M − 1   f t ]     , and I is a unit matrix. Numerical integration of (32) can be performed with number of standard methods, e.g. Runge-Kutta method or trapezoid rule, using Matlab or Scilab software

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solution or even failure of the calculation of numerical integration due to negative values of Jacobian determinants at nodes. On the other hand, the DEM simulation does not have this limitation, but it is computationally expensive, and the processor power

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values on the Akaike information criteria (AIC) and the Bayesian information criteria (BIC), under maximum likelihood estimation with numerical integration. The reliability of each MOGQ factor was then computed. With a bi-factor model, we used

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