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interactions among different factors [ 10 ]. To overcome these shortcomings, Box and Wilson suggested the use of response surface methodology (RSM) [ 11 ]. RSM is an effective and efficient mathematical statistics method to construct models, evaluate the

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systematic approach that includes multidimensional combinations of input variables using design of experiments such as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to obtain optimal conditions with better quality assurance [ 10 ]. Design Space (DS) is a key step in the

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, while a response surface methodology based on central composite design (RSM-CCD) program was carried out for the maximum yields. In our previous work, six kinds of solvents (methanol, anhydrous, ethanol, 95% ethanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Szilvia Bánvölgyi, Eszter Dusza, Fiina K. Namukwambi, István Kiss, Éva Stefanovits-Bányai, and Gyula Vatai

(°C) Time (h) Solvent concentration Water (%) Alcohol (%) −1 30 1 100 0 0 45 3 50 50 1 60 5 0 100 Response surface methodology (RSM) technique was used to optimize the extraction conditions aimed at maximum recovery of polyphenol. The RSM is an

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addition to the experimental investigation, new statistical methods were applied to determine the optimum parameters, i.e., to reduce the number of the experiments [ 21–23 ]. In this approach, Paventhan et al. [ 21 ] used Response Surface Methodology (RSM

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Summary

Radix Isatidis has widely useful activities including anti-virus, anti-bacterial. Tryptanthrin, indigo, and indirubin are active ingredients in R. Isatidis. Response surface methodology (RSM)-optimized infrared-assisted extraction (IRAE) was developed and combined with HPLC for simultaneous determination of tryptanthrin, indigo, and indirubin from R. Isatidis. IRAE were investigated through extraction yields of the three components and optimized by RSM. The optimum conditions were as follows: infrared power of 129 W, solid/liquid ratio of 1:40 g/mL, and irradiation time of 22.5 min. IRAE conditions obtained by RSM were not only accurate, but also had practical value reflecting the expected optimization. Subsequently, this novel IRAE method was evaluated by extraction yield of the components of R. Isatidis samples from different regions. Compared with common extraction methods including maceration extraction (ME), reflux extraction (RE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), IRAE showed higher yield with advantages of no limitation of solvent selection, low cost, convenience under optimum extraction conditions. These results suggested the potential of RSM-optimized IRAE for extraction and analysis of the water-/fat-soluble compositions of Chinese herbal medicine. A simple chromatographic separation for simultaneous determination of tryptanthrin, indigo, and indirubin from Chinese herbal medicine R. Isatidis was performed on a C18 column (Diamonsil 150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) with a mobile phase isocratic consisting of methanol and water at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL min−1. The retention times of tryptanthrin, indigo, and indirubin were 15.4, 31.9, and 58.6 min, respectively. The linear equations were obtained as follows: y = −3094.5744 + 21208.792x for tryptanthrin (R = 0.9998, 0.9–18.0 μg mL−1), y = 4730.0448 + 30180.567x for indigo (R = 0.9997, 0.5–10.0 μg mL−1) and y = −6582.9045 + 67069.312x for indirubin (R = 0.9997, 0.4–8.0 μg mL−1). The result showed that RSM-optimized IRAE was a simple, efficient pretreatment method for the analysis of complex matrix.

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. Table I Variables and levels in response surface methodology, i.e., central composite design

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: J.A. Pino, E. Sauri-Duch, O. Sosa-Moguel, C.A. Can-Cauich, V.M. Moo-Huchin, and L. Cuevas-Glory

, 3=strong, 4=very strong). Process optimisation for the spray drying of chilli pepper was performed using response surface methodology (RSM). Independent variables were inlet air temperature and carrier content, while volatiles retention and moisture

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Summary

This paper describes the optimization and validation of an analytical method for HPLC analysis of acetazolamide in tablets using Box-Behnken design. This multivariate approach enables substantial improvement of chromatographic performance using fewer experiments, without additional cost of columns or other equipment. By use of quadratic regression analysis, equations were developed describing the behavior of the response as simultaneous functions of the selected independent variables. Accordingly, the optimum conditions were determined. For quality-control samples these were use of a C18 column with acetonitrile-phosphoric acid buffer solution (0.01 m, pH 7.1) 15:85 (ν/ν) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. Diode-array detection was performed at 266 nm. The method was validated, in accordance with ICH guidelines, for accuracy, precision (intra-day and inter-day coefficient of variation <2.0%), selectivity, and linearity (R 2 = 0.9993) over the concentration range 10–300 μg mL−1. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate and the retention time is less than 4 min. The method is therefore suitable for routine quality-control monitoring of acetazolamide in tablets.

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Simultaneous optimization of protein, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity was carried out in apple pomace by using response surface methodology (RSM) and solid state fermentation. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the content of nutritional and functional properties, and two factors were studied: time and temperature of fermentation. The fermentation of apple pomace under the best conditions (29.5 ºC and 4.9 days) allowed the depletion of fermentable sugars, an increase the contents of protein and insoluble dietary fibre (36% and 23%, respectively), while soluble dietary fibre, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity remained constant.

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