The article aims to assess the effectiveness of the non-proliferation regime established more than 40 years ago with the adoption of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Since that time the international community had achieved considerable success in the prevention of nuclear weapons’ proliferation. Nevertheless, while noting the results of the NPT and the verification system established under that instrument, one cannot remain silent about the shortcomings of the system and the non-compliance with some of its provisions. By its structure and provisions the NPT has divided States into two groups, distinguishing those possessing and those not possessing nuclear weapons. In effect, the rights and obligations of the Contracting Parties to the NPT are tailored to the group to which they belong, and the gravest violation of the NPT is that when States seek to change their status as defined in the NPT, notably by trying to munfacture or control of nuclear weapons. Under the NPT, research in, production and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes are inalienable rights, but their exercise should be in keeping with the basic obligation of nonnuclear-weapon States under the Treaty not to acquire in any form nuclear weapons and not to carry out unauthorized nuclear activities under the guise of their peaceful nuclear programs. While emphasizing the need to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, the article describes in nutshell the nuclear program of two States (the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) which gave cause for serious international concern.
wonders about the broadness of an empty road, the international or regional community, domestic government, or judiciary clarify the limits. Accordingly, the same crash barriers should be safeguarding the personal space of an individual. To what extent are
outlook and income inequality. Better fiscal rules and good fiscal institutions are needed to safeguard growth- and distribution friendly expenditures in a crisis. References Aghion , P. – Akcigit , U. – Bergeaud , A. – Blundell , R. – Hemous
Hungary ratified Protocol No. 13 to the European Convention for the Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms concerning the abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances. This event is not a surprise since the Hungarian Constitutional Court declared capital punishment unconstitutional in 1990. Retrospectively, the development of the safeguards against capital punishment in Hungary might seem as a stretch of self-evident consequences. The present paper attempts to situate the decision of the Constitutional Court in its broader context and reflect upon the significance of symbolic founding gestures in times of democratic transition.
This paper has been prepared in the hope of giving new insights into the case of C-446/03 Marks & Spencer. The author tries to explore the process of communication in the light of the legal autopoiesis theory, the final result of which is the judgment. Reading it, one can find plain arguments both for the effective protection of EC freedoms, including the freedom of establishment, one the one hand, and for stopping regulatory and tax competition, and safeguarding the national interests of Member States, on the other one. The methodology of legal autopoiesis may be useful in better understanding of the message the judgment has negotiated.
Dual-use items, including software and technology, can be used for both civil and military purposes. Export control of such items is an important constituent part of security policies of exporter states. These measures are aimed at avoiding proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.1 The nature of dual-use goods intrigues imposition of control over exporting them to unfriendly countries or those ‘sensitive’ in terms of their ambiguous considerations of foreign policies.2 Some category of goods may be banned for export, whilst others are legitimate products that further technological development and strengthen international economic ties. The aim of the exporter states is to seek balance between safeguarding security objectives whilst not undermining competitiveness of local businesses. The paper explores the EU framework for regulating exports of dual-use goods as well as the EU participation in the international export controls regimes.
Authors:Abraham P. Buunk and Odette van Brummen-Girigori
Most studies on changes in female behavior and preferences across the menstrual cycle have been conducted in samples comprised of largely white undergraduate students from Western populations. The present study examined cyclical shifts in reactive, preventive and anxious jealousy in a sample of 71 Afro-Caribbean women from Curaçao, a country in the Caribbean. We expected that, because of the risk of conceiving, especially preventive jealousy would be relatively high when fertile to safeguard the male’s protection, provisioning and investment. The results showed that, when fertile, women experienced indeed particularly more preventive jealousy, and also somewhat more anxious jealousy, but not more reactive jealousy, than when non-fertile. In addition, preventive jealousy was higher the later the age of the first menarche. We discuss possible explanations for the functionality of preventive jealousy during the fertile phase of the cycle, and for the functionality of such jealousy among women with a slow life history strategy.
The paper discusses the issue whether art and works of art created by artists can be assessed using legal means. The paper provides an overview of the different Hungarian constitutional provisions governing artistic freedom from 1949 to the present, and examines the possible components of freedom of arts as a fundamental right, within the confines of the Hungarian legal system. According to the author, the subjective side of the artistic freedom integrates into the fundamental right of freedom of expression, ie artistic expression is free, but it does not require a separate, specific protection under constitutional law. However, the specificities of artistic expression as factors influencing the scope of the freedom of expression might be taken into account, e.g. symbolic speech, the specificities of a genre or the time elapsed since publication). Hence, works of art and literary pieces are to be treated as specific, unique forms of opinions – they are presented as a form of freedom of expression but this does not go beyond the boundaries of freedom of expression as a fundamental right. At the same time, the regulation of art, irrespective of this, might be justified even in the Fundamental Law. Setting requirements for the state (the objective obligation of the state to safeguard the institutions of fundamental law) is a precondition for the birth and preservation of works of art, which constitutes the objective side of artistic freedom without any specific subject and denotes its specific constitutional content But, an appropriate level of protection for freedom of expression ensures that this recognition should not have any detrimental consequences for freedom of arts.
Authors:Márk Oravecz, Judit Mészáros, Funian Yu, and Ildikó Horváth
Zhang, Z., Lam, T. N., Zuo, Z.: Radix Puerariae: an overview of its chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 2013, 53 (8), 787–811.
UNESCO, Convention for the Safeguarding