Inventions combine technological features. When features are barely related, burdensomely broad knowledge is required to identify the situations that they share. When features are overly related, burdensomely broad knowledge is required to identify the situations that distinguish them. Thus, according to my first hypothesis, when features are moderately related, the costs of connecting and costs of synthesizing are cumulatively minimized, and the most useful inventions emerge. I also hypothesize that continued experimentation with a specific set of features is likely to lead to the discovery of decreasingly useful inventions; the earlier-identified connections reflect the more common consumer situations. Covering data from all industries, the empirical analysis provides broad support for the first hypothesis. Regressions to test the second hypothesis are inconclusive when examining industry types individually. Yet, this study represents an exploratory investigation, and future research should test refined hypotheses with more sophisticated data, such as that found in literature-based discovery research.
This paper investigates the role of extra-regional capabilities in regional economic development in a Central and Eastern European context. This is done by analysing the association between the related variety of manufacturing import and export of domestic- and foreign-owned firms on the one hand, and regional employment in manufacturing export on the other. By means of a panel regression framework applied to the Hungarian microregions between 2000 and 2011, we find that domestic firms, in particular, benefit from the related variety of export activities in the regions, while import related to existing export activities is beneficial amongst both foreign and domestic firms. Furthermore, bridging the technological gap between foreign companies and the host economy requires stronger technological relatedness, unless domestic firms have experience in importing.
This case study of the medical technology sector in Czechia places a major focus on the position of Czech firms, particularly SMEs, in global production networks and their internationalization. The medical technology (MedTech) industry is on the rise in Czechia, although in relative terms it is part of a relatively less important category. Three types of MedTech firms have been identified in Czechia: branches of TNCs, mostly domestically-owned innovative SMEs, and local SMEs focusing on low-value production. Despite there being several innovative and successful firms, production is dominated by low-value disposables and medical and surgical products. Apart from exports, other forms of internationalization are rare and occur mostly among a number of innovative firms. With a few exceptions, production facilities are established in neighboring post-communist countries. The low levels of internationalization are mostly related to the nature of local SMEs as well as the limited ambitions of local firms. With more sophisticated products Czech SMEs could focus more on Eastern European countries outside the EU, where Czechia has historical economic ties and the regulatory requirements are likely to be less strict. An industry move towards connected health solutions is also an opportunity for start-ups focusing on health applications.
Authors:Justyna Sułowska, Irena Wacławska, and Magdalena Szumera
)Na 2 O– x CuO–(50− x /2)P 2 O 5 system, where x is less than 34 mol% [ 1 ], as well as glasses from 50P 2 O 5 –20Na 2 O–30CuO system [ 2 ] were totally amorphous. For glasses from P 2 O 5 –Na 2 O–CuO system the glass formation region was determined