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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Sam-Wook Choi, Hyun Kim, Ga-Young Kim, Yeongju Jeon, Su Park, Jun-Young Lee, Hee Jung, Bo Sohn, Jung-Seok Choi, and Dai-Jin Kim

Open access

Background and Aims

To date, few studies have examined the clinical manifestation of disordered gamblers in financial markets. This study examined the differences in the clinical and treatment-related features of gambling disorder between financial markets and horse races.

Methods

Subjects who met the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (PG) and who sought treatment were assessed by retrospective chart review. One hundred forty-four subjects were included in this sample, which consisted of the following groups: financial markets (n = 45; 28.6%) and horse races (n = 99; 71.4%).

Results

Multiple similar manifestations were found between the groups, including severity of PG, age of PG onset, amounts of gambling debts, drinking days per week, depressive mood, duration of seeking treatment after the onset of PG, and treatment follow-up duration. However, disordered gamblers who invested in the financial market were significantly more likely to be educated (p = 0.003), live with their spouses (p = 0.007), have full-time jobs (p = 0.006), and they were more likely to participate in the first type of gambling than the horse races group (p<0.001). Furthermore, the financial markets group received the anti-craving medication less often than the horse races group (p = 0.04).

Discussion and Conclusions

These findings suggest that disordered gamblers in financial markets show different socio-demographic, clinical and treatment-related features compared with the horse race gamblers, despite a similar severity of gambling disorder. Understanding these differential manifestations may provide insight into prevention and treatment development for specific types of gambling.

Open access

Background and aims

Overindulgence in Internet gaming, which is related to rapid development of the online game industry, can cause a psychiatric disorder known as Internet gaming disorder (IGD). The number of adolescents with IGD is on the rise in countries with developed Internet technologies, such as South Korea. Therefore, it is important to develop biomarkers to detect patients at high risk of IGD. This study investigated expression levels of proteins in the blood of adolescents to provide insight into the development of biomarkers.

Methods

We collected blood samples from 73 subjects [40 healthy adolescents (Internet gaming control, IGC) and 33 adolescents with IGD] between 13:00 and 15:00. We analyzed the expression levels of orexin A, oxytocin, cortisol, melatonin, BDNF, sICAM-1, RANTES, and NCAM using multiplex assay kits.

Results

Orexin A was significantly (p = .016) elevated in the IGD group and the expression levels of melatonin tended to be higher (p = .055) in the IGD group. On the other hand, increased Internet gaming time in the IGD group was negatively correlated (p = .041) with expression of BDNF. On the contrary, sICAM-1 associated with inflammation exhibited the tendency of the positive correlation (p = .073) with Internet gaming time in the IGD group.

Discussion and conclusions

We identified elevation of orexin A in the peripheral blood of adolescents with IGD and a negative correlation between Internet gaming time and BDNF in adolescents with IGD. Our results provide useful information to understand the pathophysiology of IGD in adolescents.

Open access

Abstract

During the process of fermentation, the chemical compositions of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliate (L). Raf) changed greatly. To provide a completely phytochemical profile, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to screen and identify the unknown constituents of trifoliate orange during fermentation, which make it available for the quality control of fermented products. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to classify the trifoliate oranges based on the status of fermentation. A total of 8 components were identified among the samples. Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) demonstrated the fermented and unfermented trifoliate oranges were obviously different, an effective and reliable Partial Least Square Discriminate Analysis (PLS-DA) technique was more suitable to provide accurate discrimination of test samples based their different chemical patterns. Furthermore, a permutation validated the reliability of PLS-DA and variable importance plot revealed that the characterized syringing, naringin, and poncirin showed the high ability to distinguish the trifoliate oranges during fermentation. The present investigation could provide detailed information for the quality control and evaluation of trifoliate oranges during the fermentation process.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Sam-Wook Choi, Dai-Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi, Heejune Ahn, Eun-Jeung Choi, Won-Young Song, Seohee Kim, and Hyunchul Youn

Background and Aims

Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction.

Methods

College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young’s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses.

Results

The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage.

Discussion

These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships.

Conclusions

Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Seung-Yup Lee, Donghwan Lee, Cho Rong Nam, Da Yea Kim, Sera Park, Jun-Gun Kwon, Yong-Sil Kweon, Youngjo Lee, Dai Jin Kim, and Jung-Seok Choi

Background and objectives

The ubiquitous Internet connections by smartphones weakened the traditional boundaries between computers and mobile phones. We sought to explore whether smartphone-related problems differ from those of computer use according to gender using latent class analysis (LCA).

Methods

After informed consents, 555 Korean middle-school students completed surveys on gaming, Internet use, and smartphone usage patterns. They also completed various psychosocial instruments. LCA was performed for the whole group and by gender. In addition to ANOVA and χ2 tests, post-hoc tests were conducted to examine differences among the LCA subgroups.

Results

In the whole group (n = 555), four subtypes were identified: dual-problem users (49.5%), problematic Internet users (7.7%), problematic smartphone users (32.1%), and “healthy” users (10.6%). Dual-problem users scored highest for addictive behaviors and other psychopathologies. The gender-stratified LCA revealed three subtypes for each gender. With dual-problem and healthy subgroup as common, problematic Internet subgroup was classified in the males, whereas problematic smartphone subgroup was classified in the females in the gender-stratified LCA. Thus, distinct patterns were observed according to gender with higher proportion of dual-problem present in males. While gaming was associated with problematic Internet use in males, aggression and impulsivity demonstrated associations with problematic smartphone use in females.

Conclusions

An increase in the number of digital media-related problems was associated with worse outcomes in various psychosocial scales. Gaming may play a crucial role in males solely displaying Internet-related problems. The heightened impulsivity and aggression seen in our female problematic smartphone users requires further research.

Open access

Background and aims

Gambling disorder (GD) shares many similarities with substance use disorders (SUDs) in clinical, neurobiological, and neurocognitive features, including decision-making. We evaluated the relationships among, GD, decision-making, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as measured by serum BDNF levels.

Methods

Twenty-one male patients with GD and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were evaluated for associations between serum BDNF levels and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), as well as between serum BDNF levels and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) indices.

Results

The mean serum BDNF levels were significantly increased in patients with GD compared to healthy controls. A significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and PGSI scores was found when controlling for age, depression, and duration of GD. A significant negative correlation was obtained between serum BDNF levels and IGT improvement scores.

Discussion

These findings support the hypothesis that serum BDNF levels constitute a dual biomarker for the neuroendocrine changes and the severity of GD in patients. Serum BDNF level may serve as an indicator of poor decision-making performance and learning processes in GD and help to identify the common physiological underpinnings between GD and SUDs.

Open access

Abstract

Objectives

We examined serial mediating roles of low self-control and aggression in explaining relationships between levels of inattention and hyperactivity problems (IHPs) and severity of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) features when exposed to online games among adolescents without Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stratified by gender using three-wave longitudinal study.

Method

The sample comprised a total of 1,732 family dyads from a study that was conducted among seventh graders without diagnoses of ADHD at baseline. Levels of IHPs were assessed by the parent reported Korean version of the ADHD rating scale at baseline (wave1). Severity of IGD features was assessed by the Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen (IGUESS) at wave3. Both levels of self-control (wave1) and aggression (wave2) were assessed by self-report. The mediating role of low self-control and aggression in the relationships between level of IHPs and severity of IGD were evaluated using serial mediation analysis separately for each gender.

Results

Levels of IHPs were related directly to severity of IGD features in both genders. The indirect effects via low self-control were also significant in both genders, however, the indirect effects via aggression was significant only in women. The serial mediation effect via low self-control and aggression between levels of IHPs and IGD features was significant in both genders (men, coefficient:0.009, 95%CI 0.005–0.019; women, coefficient:0.010, 95%CI:0.005–0.026).

Conclusion

We revealed a possible mechanism underlying a serial mediation chain from low self-control to aggression explaining the effects of IHPs on severity of IGD features. However, this conclusion should be taken with a caution, because the effect sizes were very low.

Open access