The ball and Plate (BaP) system is the typical example of the nonlinear dynamic system that is used in a wide range of engineering applications. So, many researchers in the control field are using the Bap system to check robust controllers under several points that challenge it, such as internal and external disturbances. Our manuscript proposed a position control intelligent technique with two directions (2D) for the BaP system by optimized multi Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC’s) with Chicken Swarm Optimization (CSO) for each one. The gains and rules of the FLC’s can tune based on the CSO. This proposal utilizes the ability of the FLC’s to observe the position of the ball. At our work, the BaP system that belonged to Control Laboratory/Systems and Control Engineering department is used for real-time proposal implementation. The results have been showing a very good percentage enhancement in settling time, rise time, and overshoot, of the X-axis and Y-axis, respectively.
Authors:Ahmed A. Hashim, Khalil I. Mahmoud, and Hussein M. Ridha
In embedded systems that necessarily require a steady source of power and (or) attaches to a sensor(s), there are opportunities to mix small batteries to supply such power. The aim of this research is to optimize the geometry and shape of piezoelectric cantilevers to harvest more power. Several piezoelectric cantilever geometries with various shapes (rectangular, triangular, circular, and trapezoidal cross section) are tested in COMSOL multiphysics simulator to find the best geometry that provides the highest accomplishable power. The most efficient geometry was found to be conferred by the trapezoidal, cross section cantilever. Next, another improvement method was applied to maximize the harvested power of the cantilever by modifying the shape of the trapezoidal cantilever structure through increasing the number of its faces. The results demonstrated that the highest output power (36 mW) was produced by the four faces, trapezoidal cross section design of cantilever.
Authors:A. B. A. Ahmed, A. S. Rao, M. V. Rao, and R. M. Taha
Gymnemic acid (GA), a well known anti-diabetic compound has been detected in methanol extracts of intact leaves and in vitro callus cultures derived from leaf explants of Gymnema sylvestre. Callus biomass was developed in MS medium with optimum plant growth regulators (OPGRs) of 2,4-D (1.5 mg L−1) + KN (0.5 mg L−1) under abiotic stress conditions at 45 days determined by growth curve analysis. GA detection and quantification were carried out using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), highperformance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gravimetric techniques. GA detection peak area and their absorption spectra were evaluated through HPTLC and HPLC with the standard GA. Quantification of GA had showed the linearity, accuracy, robustness and precision by HPLC. GA content was significantly higher in gravimetric method than HPLC. All these methods were found to be simple, accurate, selective and rapid and could be successfully applied for the determination of GA. It could have potential as a pharmaceutical drug for Type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and obesity.
Authors:Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mosad A. Ghareeb, Amal M. Saad, Laila A. Refahy, and Ahmed A. Hamed
Eight compounds were isolated and identified from the soil-inhabiting fungus Aspergillus fumigatus 3T-EGY, namely, stearic acid (1), α-linolenic acid (2), physcion (3), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (4), 2,4,5,17-tetramethoxy pradimicin lactone (5), 3,5-dihydroxy-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoyl-2H-chromen-2-one (6), juglanthraquinone A-5-O-d-rhodosamine-(4′→1″)-2-deoxy-d-glucose (4″→1″′)-cinerulose B (7), and micropeptin (8). Their structures were determined on the basis of one-dimensional (1D-) and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) [1H-, 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY (COrrelated SpectroscopY), and 1H-13C HMBC (Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation) spectroscopy]. Compound 7 showed moderate in vitro antimicrobial activity against three pathogenic strains with inhibition zones values were ranged from 9.0 to 10.66 mm compared to neomycin as a positive control with inhibition zones values were ranged from 14.0 to 19.0 mm.
Authors:Ranim I. Moussad, Randa A. Abdel Salam, Ghada M. Hadad, Alaa EL Gindy, Ahmed I. Foudah, and Eman A. Abdel Hameed
In this study, a simple, fully validated and rapid reversed-phase HPLC with photodiode array detector method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 selected phenolic antioxidants over 33 min in personal care and food samples containing extracts of green apple, pomegranate (Ponica granatum) and argan oil (Argania spinosa). The method was performed using NUCLEODUR C18 column 5 µm particle size and 12.5 cm length. The HPLC mobile phase was prepared as follows, solution A: 1% aqueous acetic acid and solution B: Acetonitrile. The method was gradient at flow rate 1.0 mL/min with a simple mobile phase, minimal sample preparation, and diminished organic solvent usage (3% acetonitrile for almost 90% of the run time). The detection was carried out at 278 nm. The method presented good precision and accuracy with RSD% values ranged between 0.33 and 1.94% and wide linear range. The developed method was successfully applied on 67 personal care and food products present in Egyptian market and can be used for routine screening in laboratory for the regular quality control of the antioxidant content for products containing the mentioned extracts.
Authors:R. Soomro, S. Q. Memon, M. J. Ahmed, N. Memon, and A. Mallah
Bis(salicylaldehyde) orthophenylenediamine (BSOPD) is reported here as a complexing reagent for simultaneous determination of six metal ions, gold, chromium, iron(II)/(III), uranyl, and nickel, by capillary zone electrophoresis. The pre-derivatized complexes were injected onto 50 cm bare silica capillary (i.d. 75 µm) with background electrolyte 50 mM citrate:oxalate buffer in 1:1 at pH 4. All metal ions were separated within 15 min including coexisted ions at applied voltage of −15 kV at detection wavelength of 250 nm. Under the abovementioned conditions, limits of quantification and detection were found to be 0.5, 1.0, 1.0, 10.0, 1.0, and 10.0 µg mL−1; and 0.16, 0.33, 0.33, 3.33, 0.33, and 3.33 µg mL−1 for Au(III), Cr(VI), Fe(III), Fe(II), UO2(II), and Ni(II), respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained in the ranges of 0.5–100, 1–200, 10–100, 1–100, 1–100, and 10–200 µg mL−1 with the correlation coefficient values 0.9964, 0.9948, 0.9900, 0.9999, 0.9992, and 0.9918 for Au(III); and Cr(VI), Fe(III), Fe(II), UO2(II), and Ni(II), respectively. Applicability of the method has been evaluated by determining gold from wastewater samples of goldsmith factories and uranyl from ore samples. The developed method was also used for the determination of chromium in selected environmental waters (drinking and polluted). The data obtained with developed method were compared with those obtained from atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the results of the analysis were found to be in good agreement.
Authors:Maha A.M. El-Shazly, Ahmed A. Hamed, Hoda A. Kabary, and Mosad A. Ghareeb
The therapeutical applications of ornamental plants have been categorized to be of a great effectiveness in multiple industries from ancient times until present days. Pluchea dioscoridis is widely known Egyptian wooden plant that has been extensively applied for different medicinal purposes. In this study, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the potent antimicrobial ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of P. dioscoridis leaves led to identification of 28 and 21 compounds, respectively. The identified compounds were categorized as phenolic acids, phenolic acids derivatives, organic acids, flavonoids (aglycones and glycosides), secoiridoids, coumarin derivatives, and gallotannins derivatives. Among them, caffeic acid 3-sulfate was the most predominate in the investigated extracts followed by ferulic acid and dicaffeoyl-quinic acid. Also, the antimicrobial potentiality of different extracts was evaluated against different pathogenic microbes including Enterobacter cloacae, Micrococcus leutus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus lichneformis and Clostridium species. Furthermore, different concentrations of the most potent extract were assayed for antibacterial efficacy on growth curve kinetics against the susceptible bacteria along 4days incubation period. Our gathered data confirmed that, the antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria was different according to the solvent used in the extraction process. Mostly, all the extracts showed a wide spectrum antibacterial activity except the plant water extract which shows a mild activity against Clostridium sp. only. Based on the highest inhibition zone diameter, the ethyl acetate extract followed by butanol extract exhibited the highest inhibition zone with Micrococcus luteus and B. subtilis (20.0 and 18.5 mm) respectively. Determining the effect of ethyl acetate extract at different concentration (0, 0.66, 1.66, 3.33, 6.67, 13.34 and 20.01 mg mL−1) on M. luteus growth kinetics, the data assured that the antibacterial activity shows concentration dependent manner with the highest antibacterial activity at 20.01 mg mL−1 culture. The data also confirmed that, none of the selected concentration showed bactericidal activity in the prepared cultures, and with the prolonged incubation period the bacteria acquire resistance against the extract beginning from second or third day of incubation.
Authors:Said A. Hassan, Noha Ibrahim, Eman S. Elzanfaly, and Ahmed E. El Gendy
Chloroquine phosphate (CQ) the antimalarial drug and suggested to treat the pandemic disease coronavirus (COVID-19) is often adulterated with some of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as paracetamol, aspirin (ASP), or both. The purpose of this study is to detect such counterfeited drugs, using a reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. Analysis was divided into three phases. In the first phase, a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to screen five independent factors, namely, buffer pH, buffer concentration (mM), acetonitrile content (%), flow rate (mL/min) and triethylamine (TEA) content in the buffer preparation (%). The selected dependent variables were (resolution, symmetry of peaks and run time). The objective of the second phase was to optimize the method performance using Box-Behnken design (BBD) and desirability function for multiple response optimization to obtain the best chromatographic performance with the shortest run time. Optimal chromatographic separation was achieved on a YMC-pack pro C18 ODS-A column (15 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) at room temperature The optimum mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer containing 0.5% triethyamine (30:70, v/v) with the pH adjusted to 3.5 using an orthophosphoric acid solution. The flow rate was maintained at 1 mL/min, and the detection was performed with a fluorescence detector fixed at 380 nm (λemission) after excitation at 335 nm (λexcitation). The third phase was method validation according to ICH guidelines, providing to be specific, precise, accurate, and robust. The method is linear over a range of 0.4–8 µg/mL for chloroquine and ASP, while for paracetamol it is linear over 16–48 µg/mL. The developed RP-HPLC method was used for quantitation of the three drugs in chloroquine dosage form samples. The method shows a great tendency in the classification between the genuine chloroquine and the adulterated ones in pharmaceutical preparations and breast milk.
Authors:Hytham M. Ahmed, Tarek S. Belal, Rasha A. Shaalan, Fawzy A. El Yazbi, and Sohila M. Elonsy
In this work, a novel, simple, and quick capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was proposed for simultaneous analysis of benazepril (BEN) with other co-administrated antihypertensive drugs, amlodipine besylate (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), using a diode array detector (DAD). A fused silica capillary (78.5 cm total length, 70 cm effective length, and 75 μm id) was used in separation using a 40 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.5 as a running background electrolyte (BGE) under a positive potential of 30 KV, at a stable temperature of 25 °C for capillary during separation. Hydrodynamic injections were performed for 12 s at 50 mbar, and detection was performed at 210 nm for AML and BEN, at 225 nm for HCT, and at 232 nm for xipamide (XIP) added as an internal standard (IS). Separation of the three analyzed drugs and the IS was performed in less than 8 min. Migration times were 4.06, 5.23, 6.69, and 7.3 min for AML, HCT, BEN, and XIP, respectively. The findings proved that the proposed method was linear in the range of 10–80 μg/mL for all drugs with correlation coefficients >0.9994. The limit of detection (LOD) values of AML, HCT, and BEN were 1.004, 1.224, and 0.896 μg/mL, respectively, whereas the limit of quantification (LOQ) values were 3.124, 3.727, and 2.749 μg/mL for the cited drugs, respectively. Peak identity and purity were confirmed by DAD. The developed CZE method was applied for the analysis of the three antihypertensive drugs successfully in their combined pharmaceutical tablets, and it can be used for the quality control of single-pill combination (SPC) samples of these drugs in short time.
Authors:Merzouqi Maria, Sarhrouni El Kebir, and Hammouch Ahmed
Hyperspectral images (HSI) present a wealth of information. It is distinguished by its high dimensionality. It served humanity in many fields. The quantity of HSI information represents a double-edged sword. As a consequence, their dimensionality must be reduced. Nowadays, several methods are proposed to overcome their duress. The most useful and essential solution is selection approaches of hyperspectral bands to analyze it quickly. Our work suggests a novel method to achieve this selection: we introduce a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based on mutual information (MI) and Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) as fitness functions. It selects the relevant bands from noisiest and redundant ones that don’t contain any additional information. .The proposed method is applied to three different HSI: INDIAN PINE, PAVIA, and SALINAS. The introduced algorithm provides a remarkable efficiency on the accuracy of the classification, in front of other statistical methods: the Bhattacharyya coefficient as well as the inter-bands correlation (Pearson correlation). We conclude that the measure of information (MI, NMI) provides more efficiency as a fitness function for GA selection applied to HSI; it must be more investigated.