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Summary

Ashwaghanda, Withania somnifera, is one of the most widely used herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. Leaves and roots are the traditionally used parts of the plant. An RP-HPLC method using a binary acetonitrile-water gradient containing 0.1% acetic acid has been developed for analysis of withaferin A. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and used for analysis of the withanolide content of the flowers, leaves, and roots of W. somnifera. The withanolide content was highest in the flowers.

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Abstract

A new, sensitive, stability-indicating reversed-phase HPLC method was validated and applied for the simultaneous quantitation of sodium valproate and two paraben preservatives; methylparaben, and propylparaben in the liquid dosage form. Stability tests were carried out through exposure of the analyte's solution to stress conditions. Separation of the analytes was achieved on (waters) C18 Column (150 mm × 3.9 mm, 5 μm). A mixture of 0.05 M monobasic potassium phosphate pH 3.5 and acetonitrile (50:50; v/v) was applied at 1.5 ml/min flow rate and UV detection wavelength at 210 nm. The degradation products and the analytes were completely separated. The linearity was performed in the range of 50–150 % from a target concentration of 10 μg/ml propylparaben, 90 μg/ml methylparaben, and 2.88 mg/ml sodium valproate with a coefficient correlation (R2) 1.0 for methylparaben, propylparaben and sodium valproate. The validation results of the suggested method were in a good agreement with ICH guidelines. Application of the proposed method for analysis of liquid dosage forms was successfully carried out in the routine quality control process.

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Sudan is suffering from harsh summers, but most of the modern buildings in urban areas are not compatible with the recent and future climate phenomena. Application of cooling devices is relatively expensive and therefore beyond reach. The main objective of this research is to give an overview on the overheating problem and the thermal comfort in buildings. A dynamic energy simulation has been performed for a selected case study using Design Builder Code. The results show that the share of discomfort hours for a typical modern building is 78% and 33% above 26 °C and 32 °C per year, respectively, but after using a combination of different ventilation, shading and building materials options the discomfort hours can be reduced to 77% and 26%, respectively.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Ali Konaté, René Dembélé, Assèta Kagambèga, Issiaka Soulama, Wendpoulomdé A. D. Kaboré, Emmanuel Sampo, Haoua Cissé, Antoine Sanou, Samuel Serme, Soumanaba Zongo, Cheikna Zongo, Alio Mahamadou Fody, Nathalie K. Guessennd, Alfred S. Traoré, Amy Gassama-Sow, and Nicolas Barro

Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is important bacteria of children’s endemic and epidemic diarrhea worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of DEC isolated from stool samples collected from children with acute diarrhea living in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. From August 2013 to October 2015, stool samples were collected from 315 children under 5 years of age suffering from diarrhea in the “Centre Médical avec Antenne Chirurgicale (CMA)” Paul VI and the CMA of Schiphra. E. coli were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods, and the 16-plex PCR method was used to further characterize them. Four hundred and nineteen (419) E. coli strains were characterized, of which 31 (7.4%) DEC pathotypes were identified and classified in five E. coli pathotypes: 15 enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (48.4%), 8 enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (25.8%) with 4 typical EPEC and 4 atypical EPEC, 4 enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) (12.9%), 3 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) 9.67%, and 1 enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) 3.2%. The use of multiplex PCR as a routine in clinical laboratory for the detection of DEC would be a useful mean for a rapid management of an acute diarrhea in children.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Ali Konaté, René Dembélé, Nathalie K. Guessennd, Fernique Konan Kouadio, Innocent Kouamé Kouadio, Mohamed Baguy Ouattara, Wendpoulomdé A. D. Kaboré, Assèta Kagambèga, Haoua Cissé, Hadiza Bawa Ibrahim, Touwendsida Serge Bagré, Alfred S. Traoré, and Nicolas Barro

The emergence and persistence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) causing acute diarrhea is a major public health challenge in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance phenotypes of DEC isolated from stool samples collected from children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea living in Ouagadougou/Burkina Faso. From August 2013 to October 2015, this study was carried out on 31 DEC strains of our study conducted in “Centre Médical avec Antenne Chirurgicale (CMA)” Paul VI and CMA of Schiphra. DEC were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to further characterize them. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done based on the disk diffusion method. DEC isolates were high resistant to tetracycline (83.9%), amoxicillin (77.4%), amoxicillin clavulanic acid (77.4%), piperacillin (64.5%), and colistin sulfate (61.3%). The most resistant phenotype represented was the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype (67.7%). Aminoglycosides were 100% active on enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). All the DEC isolates exhibited absolute (100%) sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. Monitoring and studying the resistance profile of DEC to antibiotics are necessary to guide probabilistic antibiotic therapy, especially in pediatric patients.

Open access