Authors:Dambarudhar Parida, Christophe A. Serra, Rigoberto Ibarra Gómez, Dhiraj K. Garg, Yannick Hoarau, Michel Bouquey, and René Muller
We report on the synthesis of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in tubular microreactors. Different process parameters, temperature, pressure, and shear rate, were considered to accelerate the reaction. Increase in temperature induced a faster reaction, but controlled nature of ATRP decreased past a threshold value that can be increased up to 95 °C by reducing the residence time. Positive effect of pressure was observed since significant increases in monomer conversion (+12.5 %) and molecular weight (+5,000 g/mol) were obtained. Moreover, polydispersity index was found to decrease from 1.52 at normal pressure to 1.44 at 100 bars. Benefit of pressure was more visible in smaller reaction space (smaller tube diameter). Finally, shear rate has quite an influence on the early stage of the polymerization and is expressed by an increase in the reaction rate. However, the effect was dimed for long residence times.
Authors:Matthias Brand, Hans-JÜrgen Rumpf, Zsolt Demetrovics, Astrid MÜller, Rudolf Stark, Daniel L. King, Anna E. Goudriaan, Karl Mann, Patrick Trotzke, Naomi A. Fineberg, Samuel R. Chamberlain, Shane W. Kraus, Elisa Wegmann, JoËl Billieux, and Marc N. Potenza
Gambling and gaming disorders have been included as “disorders due to addictive behaviors” in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Other problematic behaviors may be considered as “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors (6C5Y).”
Narrative review, experts' opinions.
We suggest the following meta-level criteria for considering potential addictive behaviors as fulfilling the category of “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors”:
1. Clinical relevance: Empirical evidence from multiple scientific studies demonstrates that the specific potential addictive behavior is clinically relevant and individuals experience negative consequences and functional impairments in daily life due to the problematic and potentially addictive behavior.
2. Theoretical embedding: Current theories and theoretical models belonging to the field of research on addictive behaviors describe and explain most appropriately the candidate phenomenon of a potential addictive behavior.
3. Empirical evidence: Data based on self-reports, clinical interviews, surveys, behavioral experiments, and, if available, biological investigations (neural, physiological, genetic) suggest that psychological (and neurobiological) mechanisms involved in other addictive behaviors are also valid for the candidate phenomenon. Varying degrees of support for problematic forms of pornography use, buying and shopping, and use of social networks are available. These conditions may fit the category of “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors”.
It is important not to over-pathologize everyday-life behavior while concurrently not trivializing conditions that are of clinical importance and that deserve public health considerations. The proposed meta-level-criteria may help guide both research efforts and clinical practice.