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Evolution, Mind and Behaviour
Authors:
Pablo Polo Polo
,
Jose Antonio Munoz-Reyes
,
Ana Maria Fernandez Tapia
,
Juan Enrique Wilson
, and
Enrique Turiégano

Individuals vary in their intrasexual competitiveness attitude, i.e., an important variable reflecting the potential threat or the extent to which one perceives other individuals of the same sex as social or mating rivals. In this study, we investigated the relationship between self-perceived mate value, a construct usually linked to intersexual selection, and intrasexual competitiveness attitude. We postulated that those psychological traits that increase mate value are related to psychological traits underlying intrasexual competitiveness attitude. The results obtained from a sample of 711 young participants of both sexes (M = 16.93 years ± SD = 0.86) indicated that mate value was positively related to intrasexual competitiveness attitude. Specifically, the subscales of Fear of Failure, Wealth, and Looks were positive predictors of intrasexual competitiveness attitude. Moreover, the Looks subscale was more relevant in determining intrasexual competitiveness attitude in women than in men. These three subscales were part of the same factorial structure that appears to be indicative of a self-promoting strategy based on the ostentation of traits through attitudes. As a conclusion, we argue that the individual differences in intrasexual competitiveness attitudes are associated with the differences in psychological features usually associated with intersexual selection.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez
,
Susana Jiménez-Murcia
,
Fernando Fernández-Aranda
,
Zaida Agüera
,
Roser Granero
,
Anders Hakansson
,
Ana B. Fagundo
,
Ferran Bolao
,
Ana Valdepérez
,
Gemma Mestre-Bach
,
Trevor Steward
,
Eva Penelo
,
Laura Moragas
,
Neus Aymamí
,
Mónica Gómez-Peña
,
Assumpta Rigol-Cuadras
,
Virginia Martín-Romera
, and
José M. Menchón

Background and aims

The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity–compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype.

Methods

The sample comprised 998 subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria: 101 patients were diagnosed with SUD, 482 with GD, 359 with BN, 11 with GD + SUD, and 45 patients with BN + SUD. Various assessment instruments were administered, as well as other clinical measures, to evaluate their predictive capacity.

Results

Marked differences in personality traits were observed between groups. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperation, and self-transcendence best differentiated the groups. Notably, novelty seeking was significantly higher in the two dual pathology subgroups. Patients with dual pathology showed the most dysfunctional personality profiles.

Discussion and conclusion

Our results indicate the existence of shared dysfunctional personality traits among the groups studied, especially in novelty seeking and self-directedness.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Ana Estévez
,
Raquel Rodríguez
,
Noelia Díaz
,
Roser Granero
,
Gemma Mestre-Bach
,
Trevor Steward
,
Fernando Fernández-Aranda
,
Neus Aymamí
,
Mónica Gómez-Peña
,
Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez
,
Marta Baño
,
Laura Moragas
,
Núria Mallorquí-Bagué
,
Hibai López-González
,
Paula Jauregui
,
Jaione Onaindia
,
Virginia Martín-Romera
,
José M. Menchón
, and
Susana Jiménez-Murcia

Background and aims

Recent technological developments have brought about notable changes in the way people gamble. The widespread use of mobile Internet devices and gambling websites has led to a significant leap in the number of people who recreationally gamble. However, for some, gambling can turn into a psychiatric disorder resembling substance addiction. At present, there is a shortage of studies examining differences between adults with gambling disorder (GD) who exclusively make sports bets online, GD patients that are non-sports Internet gamblers, and offline gamblers. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the differences between these three groups, considering sociodemographic, personality, and clinical characteristics.

Methods

The sample consisted of 2,743 treatment-seeking male patients from the Pathological Gambling Unit at a university hospital. All patients met DSM-5 criteria for GD.

Results

We found that gamblers who exclusively engaged in non-sports Internet gambling activities were younger than offline gamblers and online sports gamblers. Non-sports Internet gamblers were also more likely to have greater levels of debt compared with offline gamblers. In terms of personality characteristics, our sample displayed low levels of self-directedness and cooperativeness and high levels of novelty seeking. In addition, online sports gamblers obtained higher scores in persistence than non-sports Internet gamblers and offline gamblers.

Discussion and conclusion

Although differences if terms of gambling severity were not identified between groups, GD patients who exclusively bet online appear to possess distinct personality characteristics and higher debt levels compared with offline gamblers.

Open access