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Near-infrared (NIR) spectrophotometers with different optical arrangements were used to measure the diffusely reflected electromagnetic radiation of different types of food additives in polyethylene (PE) foils. Eight compounds, frequently used in food process – but also in other industries –, were measured by different NIR spectrophotometers. The detected (‘as is’) and mathematically transformed (by scatter correction, second derivative combined with smoothing) NIR spectra were processed with multivariate data analysis (MDA). In this matter, unsupervised methods like principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used, which techniques do not require prior information and reference measurements. The aim of the present study was to distinguish food additives by the help of the applied chemometric methods based on NIR spectra detected via the PE foils. Results indicated that distinction of different food additives and compounds with NIR methods is possible not only with the conventional sample preparations and handlings, but also without breaking the packaging.

Open access

Abstract

Soybean seeds were germinated on an industrial scale after soaking for 0–56 h to produce a special additive for food industrial use. The germination process of three soybean varieties was monitored with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy based on changes in the amount, status, or character of the water. This paper evaluates the “waterless” NIR spectra of sound, germinated, and heat treated seeds to try to follow the fine details of the germination process. The germination process was analysed with the help of cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and polar qualification system (PQS) as statistical and chemometric methods. PCA proved to be the most sensitive spectrum evaluation method to follow the fine details of germination. The applied NIR method is suitable for non-destructively, real-time monitoring of the non-linear nature of germination.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Celebrity worship, defined as an excessive admiration towards celebrities, has generated considerable research and public interest. A widely used assessment instrument to measure celebrity worship is the 23-item Celebrity Attitude Scale. However, concerns have been raised regarding the measurement, including the inconsistent factor structure and lack of a cut-off point to identify “celebrity worshipers”. The present study aims to address these concerns by testing the psychometric appropriateness of a short, 7-item version of the CAS (i.e., CAS-7) and estimating the prevalence of individuals with high-level celebrity admiration using a representative sample of Hungarian adults (between 18 and 64 years of age) according to gender, age, geographic location, and size of residence.

Methods

The total sample comprised 2028 respondents, of which 769 valid responses were administered from participants who reported having a favorite celebrity (51.11% men, M age = 36.38 years, SD = 13.36).

Results

Results indicated an excellent model fit for the two-factor and bifactor model of the CAS-7. Based on the suggested cut-off score of 26, the prevalence of high-level celebrity admiration is 4.53% in the Hungarian adult population (18–64 years of age) and 8.51% among young adults (18–34 years of age). Individuals with this high level of admiration towards a favorite celebrity reported more symptoms of problematic Internet use, depression, anxiety, and stress than individuals with general celebrity admiration levels.

Discussion and conclusions

The CAS-7 demonstrated sound psychometric properties, confirming its applicability in research and practice.

Open access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
J. Csiky
,
L. Balogh
,
I. Dancza
,
F. Gyulai
,
G. Jakab
,
G. Király
,
É. Lehoczky
,
A. Mesterházy
,
P. Pósa
, and
T. Wirth

As part of the PADAPT project, the authors compiled the invasion biological database of the alien vascular flora of Hungary, which contains the nativeness, residence time, introduc- tion mode and invasion status of 878 alien or cryptogenic taxa. In the absence of adequate evidence, the classification of some species was only possible into uncertain, transitional cat- egories. The definitions of most categories are compatible with several international termi- nologies, but are primarily based on Central European traditions. Of the 560 taxa that have already been naturalised in Hungary, 85 are invasive, and 22 of them are transformer alien vascular plants. Only 5 of these transformers are included in the European list of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern (Ailanthus altissima, Asclepias syriaca, Elodea nuttallii, Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi), which require uniform preventive interventions and treatments throughout the continent, while the rest of transformers in Hungary (e.g., Robinia pseudoacacia, Fallopia × bohemica and Solidago gigantea) draw attention to the unique, local and/ or regional invasion biological situation of the Pannonian Basin and Central Europe.

Open access