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Background and aims

The smartphone is one of the most popular devices, with the average smartphone usage at 162 min/day and the average length of phone usage at 15.79 hr/week. Although significant concerns have been made about the health effects of smartphone addiction, the relationship between smartphone addiction and accidents has rarely been studied. We examined the association between smartphone addiction and accidents among South Korean university students.

Methods

A total of 608 college students completed an online survey that included their experience of accidents (total number; traffic accidents; falls/slips; bumps/collisions; being trapped in the subway, impalement, cuts, and exit wounds; and burns or electric shocks), their use of smartphone, the type of smartphone content they most frequently used, and other variables of interests. Smartphone addiction was estimated using Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, a standardized measure developed by the National Institution in Korea.

Results

Compared with normal users, participants who were addicted to smartphones were more likely to have experienced any accidents (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.26–2.86), falling from height/slipping (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.10–3.91), and bumps/collisions (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.16–2.87). The proportion of participants who used their smartphones mainly for entertainment was significantly high in both the accident (38.76%) and smartphone addiction (36.40%) groups.

Discussion and conclusions

We suggest that smartphone addiction was significantly associated with total accident, falling/slipping, and bumps/collisions. This finding highlighted the need for increased awareness of the risk of accidents with smartphone addiction.

Open access

Background and Aims

Excessive usage of smartphones may induce social problems, such as depression and impairment of social and emotional functioning. Moreover, its usage can impede physical activity, but the relationship between smartphone addiction and physical activity is obscure. Therefore, we examined the relationship and the impact of excessive smartphone use on physical activity.

Methods

This study collected data through the structured questionnaire consisting of general characteristics, the number and hours of smartphone usage, and the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) from 110 Chinese international students in Korea. The body composition and physical activity, such as the total daily number of steps and consumed calories, were measured.

Results

In this study, high-risk smartphone users showed less physical activity, such as the total number of steps taken and the average consumed calories per day. Moreover, their body composition, such as muscle mass and fat mass, was significantly different. Among these factors, the hours of smartphone use revealed the proportional relationship with smartphone addiction (β = 0.209, p = 0.026), while the average number of walking steps per day showed a significant reverse proportional tendency in participants with smartphone addiction (β = –0.883, p < 0.001).

Conclusions

Participants with smartphone addiction were less likely to walk for each day. Namely, smartphone addiction may negatively influence physical health by reducing the amount of physical activity, such as walking, resulting in an increase of fat mass and a decrease of muscle mass associated with adverse health consequences.

Open access

Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), or anthricin, is a lignan isolated from the roots of Anthriscus sylvestris and is reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-asthmatic effects. Herein, the conditions for the extraction of DPT from A. sylvestris are optimized using a Box–Behnken design (BBD) method based on response surface methodology (RSM). DPT was detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and quadrupole detector (UPLC–PDA–QDa) and analytical validation methods based on International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. In preliminary experiments, the experimental conditions of extraction time, solvent percentage, and temperature were selected for optimization. The adequacy of the experimental model was statistically evaluated, and the regression coefficient (R 2), adjusted regression coefficient (R 2 adjust), and p-value of the lack-of-fit were determined as 97.86%, 94.02%, and 0.124, respectively. The maximum yield of DPT was estimated to be 2.341 mg/g for 30 min in 100% methanol at 60 °C, and the actual yield was measured as 2.295 mg/g (±0.023) under the same conditions.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Yeon-Jin Kim, Jae A. Lim, Ji Yoon Lee, Sohee Oh, Sung Nyun Kim, Dai Jin Kim, Jong Eun Ha, Jun Soo Kwon and Jung-Seok Choi

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by a loss of control and a preoccupation with Internet games leading to repetitive behavior. We aimed to compare the baseline neuropsychological profiles in IGD, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in the spectrum of impulsivity and compulsivity.

Methods

A total of 225 subjects (IGD, N = 86; AUD, N = 39; OCD, N = 23; healthy controls, N = 77) were administered traditional neuropsychological tests including Korean version of the Stroop Color–Word test and computerized neuropsychological tests, including the stop signal test (SST) and the intra–extra dimensional set shift test (IED).

Results

Within the domain of impulsivity, the IGD and OCD groups made significantly more direction errors in SST (p = .003, p = .001) and showed significantly delayed reaction times in the color–word reading condition of the Stroop test (p = .049, p = .001). The OCD group showed the slowest reading time in the color–word condition among the four groups. Within the domain of compulsivity, IGD patients showed the worst performance in IED total trials measuring attentional set shifting ability among the groups.

Conclusions

Both the IGD and OCD groups shared impairment in inhibitory control functions as well as cognitive inflexibility. Neurocognitive dysfunction in IGD is linked to feature of impulsivity and compulsivity of behavioral addiction rather than impulse dyscontrol by itself.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Ji-Won Chun, Chang-Hyun Park, Jin-Young Kim, Jihye Choi, Hyun Cho, Dong Jin Jung, Kook-Jin Ahn, Jung-Seok Choi, Dai-Jin Kim and In Young Choi

Abstract

Background and aims

Although the Internet has provided convenience and efficiency in many areas of everyday life, problems stemming from Internet use have also been identified, such as Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Internet addiction, which includes IGD, can be viewed as a behavioral addiction or impulse control disorder. This study investigated the altered functional and effective connectivity of the core brain networks in individuals with IGD compared to healthy controls (HCs).

Methods

Forty-five adults with IGD and 45 HCs were included in this study. To examine the brain networks related to personality traits that influence problematic online gaming, the left and right central executive network (CEN) and the salience network (SN) were included in the analysis. Also, to examine changes in major brain network topographies, we analyzed the default mode network (DMN).

Results

IGD participants showed lower functional connectivity between the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and other regions in the CEN than HC participants during resting state. Also, IGD participants revealed reduced functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and other regions in the SN and lower functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex of the anterior DMN. Notably, in IGD individuals but not HC individuals, there was a positive correlation between IGD severity and effective connectivity and a positive correlation between reward sensitivity and effective connectivity within the ventral striatum of the SN.

Conclusions

Problematic online gaming was associated with neurofunctional alterations, impairing the capacity of core brain networks.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Mi Jung Rho, Jo-Eun Jeong, Ji-Won Chun, Hyun Cho, Dong Jin Jung, In Young Choi and Dai-Jin Kim

Background and aims

Problematic Internet game use is an important social issue that increases social expenditures for both individuals and nations. This study identified predictors and patterns of problematic Internet game use.

Methods

Data were collected from online surveys between November 26 and December 26, 2014. We identified 3,881 Internet game users from a total of 5,003 respondents. A total of 511 participants were assigned to the problematic Internet game user group according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Internet gaming disorder criteria. From the remaining 3,370 participants, we used propensity score matching to develop a normal comparison group of 511 participants. In all, 1,022 participants were analyzed using the chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID) algorithm.

Results

According to the CHAID algorithm, six important predictors were found: gaming costs (50%), average weekday gaming time (23%), offline Internet gaming community meeting attendance (13%), average weekend and holiday gaming time (7%), marital status (4%), and self-perceptions of addiction to Internet game use (3%). In addition, three patterns out of six classification rules were explored: cost-consuming, socializing, and solitary gamers.

Conclusion

This study provides direction for future work on the screening of problematic Internet game use in adults.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Euihyeon Na, Inyoung Choi, Taek-Ho Lee, Hyeseon Lee, Mi Jung Rho, Hyun Cho, Dong Jin Jung and Dai-Jin Kim

Background and aims

Although Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been investigated in detail, minimal research has been conducted regarding the influence of different game genres on IGD. The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics of members of game genre-specific groups with IGD and to identify factors associated with IGD status in each group in a large sample of adults.

Methods

Internet games were categorized into four genres: real-time strategy games, massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), sport games, and first-person shooter (FPS) games. Participants (n = 2,923) who usually played one of these games completed an anonymous online survey that collected sociodemographic, game usage pattern, and psychopathological assessment data.

Results

MMORPG and FPS game players more frequently met the criteria for IGD than participants in the other two groups. Differences between the IGD-suspected gamers within the genre-specific groups were observed for a few items, such as average game-playing time and the subscales of the behavioral activation system; however, the factors that contributed to the development of IGD within each game genre-specific group were found to be considerably different.

Discussion and conclusions

The findings of this study suggest that IGD is a stable psychiatric diagnosis encompassing users of a broad range of game genres. In addition, the development of strategies for the prevention of and early intervention on individuals at high risk for developing IGD may require consideration of the distinct characteristics identified as effective predictors of IGD in users of each game genre.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Ji Yoon Lee, Su Mi Park, Yeon Jin Kim, Dai Jin Kim, Sam-Wook Choi, Jun Soo Kwon and Jung-Seok Choi

Background and aims

Impulsivity is a core feature of gambling disorder (GD) and is related to the treatment response. Thus, it is of interest to determine objective neurobiological markers associated with impulsivity in GD. We explored resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in patients with GD according to the degree of impulsivity.

Methods

In total, 109 GD subjects were divided into three groups according to Barratt impulsiveness scale-11 (BIS-11) scores: high (HI; 25th percentile of BIS-11 scores, n = 29), middle (MI; 26th–74th percentile, n = 57), and low-impulsivity (LI) groups (75th percentile, n = 23). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze differences in EEG absolute power considering group (HI, MI, and LI), brain region (frontal, central, and posterior), and hemisphere (left, midline, and right) for each frequency band (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma).

Results

The results indicated that GD patients in the HI group showed decreased theta absolute power, and decreased alpha and beta absolute power in the left, right, particularly midline frontocentral regions.

Discussion and conclusions

This study is a novel attempt to reveal impulsive features in GD by neurophysiological methods. The results suggest different EEG patterns among GD patients according to the degree of impulsivity, raising the possibility of neurophysiological objective features in GD and helping clinicians in treating GD patients with impulsive features.

Open access

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has gained recognition as a potential new diagnosis in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, but genetic evidence supporting this disorder remains scarce.

Methods

In this study, targeted exome sequencing was conducted in 30 IGD patients and 30 control subjects with a focus on genes linked to various neurotransmitters associated with substance and non-substance addictions, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Results

rs2229910 of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 3 (NTRK3) was the only single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that exhibited a significantly different minor allele frequency in IGD subjects compared to controls (p = .01932), suggesting that this SNP has a protective effect against IGD (odds ratio = 0.1541). The presence of this potentially protective allele was also associated with less time spent on Internet gaming and lower scores on the Young’s Internet Addiction Test and Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Adults.

Conclusions

The results of this first targeted exome sequencing study of IGD subjects indicate that rs2229910 of NTRK3 is a genetic variant that is significantly related to IGD. These findings may have significant implications for future research investigating the genetics of IGD and other behavioral addictions.

Open access