Authors:Hyo Seon Kim, A Yeong Lee, Byeong Cheol Moon, Wook Jin Kim, and Goya Choi
Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), or anthricin, is a lignan isolated from the roots of Anthriscus sylvestris and is reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-asthmatic effects. Herein, the conditions for the extraction of DPT from A. sylvestris are optimized using a Box–Behnken design (BBD) method based on response surface methodology (RSM). DPT was detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and quadrupole detector (UPLC–PDA–QDa) and analytical validation methods based on International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. In preliminary experiments, the experimental conditions of extraction time, solvent percentage, and temperature were selected for optimization. The adequacy of the experimental model was statistically evaluated, and the regression coefficient (R2), adjusted regression coefficient (R2adjust), and p-value of the lack-of-fit were determined as 97.86%, 94.02%, and 0.124, respectively. The maximum yield of DPT was estimated to be 2.341 mg/g for 30 min in 100% methanol at 60 °C, and the actual yield was measured as 2.295 mg/g (±0.023) under the same conditions.
Authors:Dan Gao, Chong Woon Cho, Le Ba Vinh, Jin Hyeok Kim, Young Ho Kim, and Jong Seong Kang
During the process of fermentation, the chemical compositions of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliate (L). Raf) changed greatly. To provide a completely phytochemical profile, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to screen and identify the unknown constituents of trifoliate orange during fermentation, which make it available for the quality control of fermented products. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to classify the trifoliate oranges based on the status of fermentation. A total of 8 components were identified among the samples. Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) demonstrated the fermented and unfermented trifoliate oranges were obviously different, an effective and reliable Partial Least Square Discriminate Analysis (PLS-DA) technique was more suitable to provide accurate discrimination of test samples based their different chemical patterns. Furthermore, a permutation validated the reliability of PLS-DA and variable importance plot revealed that the characterized syringing, naringin, and poncirin showed the high ability to distinguish the trifoliate oranges during fermentation. The present investigation could provide detailed information for the quality control and evaluation of trifoliate oranges during the fermentation process.