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Ezüsttálka Egy Kora Avar Kori Sírban Bonyhádról

A Silver Bowl from an Early Avar Burial found at Bonyhád (County Tolna, Hungary)

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Gábor K. Tóth

Jelen tanulmány a Bonyhádtól (Tolna megye) északra fekvő Szöcske-szántók dűlőben talált kora avar korra keltezhető, viszonylag gazdag melléklettel bíró sírnak és mellékleteinek a leírását tartalmazza. A temetkezés idejét a sírból előkerült leletek alapján a kora avar korra, a 6. század végére – 7. század elejére lehet tenni. A leletegyüttesben a tarsolyzáróként szolgáló egykori bizánci füstölőhöz tartozó elem és az ezüstcsésze a Balkán bizánci térségéből, egy kirabolt templom felszereléséből származhat és egy olyan személy leletegyütteséhez tartozhatott, aki maga is részt vett az avarok balkáni hadjárataiban, vagy ilyen személyekkel kapcsolatban állt.

Presented and discussed here is a burial with a relatively rich array of grave goods dating from the Early Avar period found in an area known as Szöcske-szántók lying north of Bonyhád (County Tolna). On the testimony of the finds recovered from the burial, the grave can be assigned to the Early Avar period, to the late 6th–early 7th century. An element taken from a Byzantine censer that was repurposed to serve as a purse clasp and the silver bowl obviously originated from a looted church in Byzantium’s Balkanic province and were the possessions of a person who had participated in the Avars’ Balkanic campaigns or who had contact with these individuals.

Open access

The addition of synthetic eugenol and benzyl acetate to the known floral chemical and moth attractant phenylacetaldehyde synergized attraction of the silver Y moth Autographa gamma, an important noctuid pest. Traps baited with the ternary blend caught 2 to 6 times more A. gamma moths than traps baited with phenylac-etaldehyde alone. Both female and male moths were attracted, supposedly in the natural sex ratio of the local population. More A. gamma were caught when the blend was formulated in dispenser types with higher release rates. Traps baited with the ternary lure in polyethylene bag dispensers caught 20% to 34% as many moths as were caught in traps baited with synthetic sex pheromone, suggesting that this improved bisexual lure could be efficient enough to yield a new tool for detection and monitoring of female and male A. gamma, for more reliable plant protection decisions.

The same ternary lure also improved trap catches of moths over phenylacetaldehyde alone for the plusiinae pests MacDunnoughia confusa (in Europe) and Autographa californica (in North America) and for the Noctuinae cutworm Xestia c-nigrum (in North America).

Open access

Abstract

The popularity of sweet potatoes in Central Europe has been increasing recently, mainly the high-quality, perfect, fresh tubers are in demand. However, out of class grade tubers could be marketed in dried, grounded form as sweet potato flour.

The aim of this study was to characterise some important nutritional properties of flours of three sweet potato genotypes with different tuber colours (white, purple, and orange) and to investigate how this raw material affects the rheological properties of sweet potato-wheat flour blends.

Dietary fibres are present in sweet potatoes in a significant proportion, orange coloured flour showed the highest values. The main free sugars were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, but sucrose was the dominant one. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content also varied considerably, the purple flour had the highest values. Mineral composition showed significant variability, the purple flour contained the highest level of minerals. It was confirmed that adding sweet potato flour to wheat flour affected its rheological properties, however in a varied manner. For the orange flour these properties have lightly decreased, though it had no significant effect on dough quality, while the white and purple flours with a dosage of 5, 10 and 15% could improve the dough behaviour. Thus, sweet potato in this form is a valuable raw material.

Open access
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
M. Tóth
,
A. Nagy
,
I. Szarukán
,
K. Ary
,
A. Cserenyec
,
B. Fenyődi
,
D. Gombás
,
T. Lajkó
,
L. Merva
,
J. Szabó
,
P. Winkler
, and
J. K. Jósvai

The addition of synthetic (E)-anethol to the known attractant phenylacetaldehyde synergized attraction of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, the blend invariably catching 4 to 6 times more than phenylacetaldehyde on its own. Highest catches were recorded by the 1:1-3:1 blends. The addition of salicyl aldehyde, ±linalool, (R)-(+)-limonene, 2-methoxybenzyl alcohol and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (compounds described earlier in the literature as co-attractants for H. armigera), increased catches when added to phenylacetaldehyde. However, the addition of these compounds did not increase catches of the (E)-anethol+pheny- lacetaldehyde blend. When directly compared with performance of the synthetic pheromone, the (E)-anethol +phenylacetaldehyde blend caught an average of 27% of the catch in pheromone baited traps. On an average 79% of moths caught in traps with the (E)-anethol+phenylacetaldehyde blend were females, while traps with pheromone caught only males. The (E)-anethol+phenylacetaldehyde blend described in this study may form the basis for the development of an efficient bisexual lure for H. armigera AFTER further optimization.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Cs. Dobolyi
,
K. Inotai
,
I. Bata-Vidács
,
D. Sárkány
,
O. Csernus
,
S. Kocsubé
,
B. Tóth
,
A. Szekeres
, and
J. Kukolya

Abstract

Aspergillus strains were isolated from Hungarian mills in order to get information on the appearance of sterigmatocystin (ST) producing moulds, whose presence has never been demonstrated in Hungary. Fungal isolates were classified into nine morphotypes, sections Nigri, Nidulantes, Versicolores (two morphotypes), Circumdati, Flavi (two morphotypes), Clavati and Terrei by classical mycological assays. ST producing strains could be classified into section Versicolores. ST production of the isolates was assessed by liquid and solid phase growth experiments and compared to ST producing reference strains: Aspergillus pepii SzMC 22332, Aspergillus versicolor SzMC 22333, Aspergillus griseoaurantiacus SzMC 22334 and Aspergillus nidulans RDIT9.32. Four of our isolates marked as Km11, Km14, Km26 and Km31 showed ST production in liquid medium. ST production on solid phase corn grit substrate was measured after three weeks of incubation, and Km26 isolate proved to be the most prominent with a toxin concentration of 277.1 μg g−1, surpassing all reference strains. The toxin-producing ability of Km26 isolate was also tested in a field experiment, where corn was infected. By the end of the experiment, ST level of 19.56 μg kg−1 was measured in infected corn.

Molecular taxonomic identification of the Km26 strain was performed using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), calmodulin and tubulin sequence analyses. Based on these studies, strain Km26 was identified as Aspergillus creber.

Here we report that an ST-producing A. creber strain has appeared in Hungary, and the Km26 strain is the first known extreme ST-producing mould in this country. As a result of climate change, aflatoxin B1 producing Aspergillus flavus strains have appeared in Hungary in the last decade. As strain Km26 is the only A. creber isolate in Hungary so far, there is no sign of mass prevalence, and due to the lower temperature optimum of the species compared to A. flavus, its appearance is probably not related to climate change.

Open access
Physiology International
Authors:
Zs. Sári
,
T. Kovács
,
T. Csonka
,
M. Török
,
É. Sebő
,
J. Toth
,
D. Tóth
,
E. Mikó
,
B. Kiss
,
D. Szeőcs
,
K. Uray
,
Zs. Karányi
,
I. Kovács
,
G. Méhes
,
P. Árkosy
, and
P. Bai

Abstract

Breast cancer is characterized by oncobiosis, the abnormal composition of the microbiome in neoplastic diseases. The biosynthetic capacity of the oncobiotic flora in breast cancer is suppressed, as suggested by metagenomic studies. The microbiome synthesizes a set of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites that are downregulated in breast cancer, including cadaverine, a microbiome metabolite with cytostatic properties. We set out to assess how the protein expression of constitutive lysine decarboxylase (LdcC), a key enzyme for cadaverine production, changes in the feces of human breast cancer patients (n = 35). We found that the fecal expression of Escherichia coli LdcC is downregulated in lobular cases as compared to invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) cases. Lobular breast carcinoma is characterized by low or absent expression of E-cadherin. Fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression is downregulated in E-cadherin negative breast cancer cases as compared to positive ones. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of LdcC expression in lobular and NST cases revealed that fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression might have predictive values. These data suggest that the oncobiotic transformation of the microbiome indeed leads to the downregulation of the production of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites. In E-cadherin negative lobular carcinoma that has a higher potential for metastasis formation, the protein levels of enzymes producing antimetastatic metabolites are downregulated. This finding represents a new route that renders lobular cases permissive for metastasis formation. Furthermore, our findings underline the role of oncobiosis in regulating metastasis formation in breast cancer.

Open access