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Az egészségromlás és az egészségmagatartás-változás kvalitatív vizsgálata munkafüggők körében

Deterioration of health and change in health behavior among individuals at risk of work addiction: a qualitative study

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Bernadette Kun, Anna Hamrák, Viktória Kenyhercz, Zsolt Demetrovics, and Zsuzsa Kaló

Háttér és célok

Egyre több kutatás irányul a munkafüggőség rizikófaktorainak és következményeinek feltárására. Bár az elméleti modellek feltételezik, hogy a túlzott munkavégzés többek között az egészségi állapotra is negatív hatással van, a kutatások alapvetően kvantitatív módszerekkel vizsgálták-e kérdést; kvalitatív vizsgálatok, amelyek a munkafüggő személyek saját élményeit elemzik, alig születtek. Célunk az volt, hogy munkafüggő személyek egészségi állapotának, egészség-magatartásának, és ezek munkavégzési szokásokkal való összefüggéseit elemezzük.

Módszer

Egy korábbi kutatásunk alapján a munkafüggőség szempontjából rizikócsoportba tartozó személyeket kértünk fel a kutatásban való részvételre, és összesen 29 fővel (15 férfi és 14 nő) készítettünk félig strukturált interjúkat. Az interjúk kitértek a személyek pályaorientációjára, munkavégzési szokásaikra, munkamotivációikra, munkafüggőséggel kapcsolatos élményeikre, testi és lelki egészségükre. Az interjúkból készült átiratok elemzése deduktív és induktív szinten is zajlott, Braun és Clarke (2006) hatlépéses módszerét követve kvalitatív témaelemzéssel történt.

Eredmények

Az interjúalanyok a túl sok munkavégzés következtében számos szempontból tapasztalták az egészségromlás jeleit. Az általános egészségromlás mellett mozgásszervi és autoimmun betegségek kialakulásáról, kardiovaszkuláris és gyomorbetegségekről, túlsúlyról, alvászavarokról és kiégésről is beszámoltak. Az egészség-magatartásuk mentén is negatív irányú változásokat tapasztaltak: az egészségtelen táplálkozás és a kevés fizikai aktivitás mellett az alvás önmaguktól való megvonása is jellemző volt.

Következtetések

Kutatásunk rámutatott arra, hogy az érintettek a fizikai egészségi állapotukban megjelenő panaszaikat a túlzott munkavégzés és munkafüggőség következményeként írták le. Az eredményeink arra utalnak, hogy a munkafüggőség nem „pozitív addikció”, sőt, a jelenséget addiktológiai megközelítésből érdemes tárgyalni, mivel a munkafüggőség tünettanában is rokonságot mutat más függőségekkel.

Background and aims

An increasing amount of studies examine the risk factors and outcomes of work addiction. Several theories posited that work addiction associates not only to negative psychological and social consequences but work addiction leads to deterioration of health status. Most of the studies explore the relationship between work addiction and physical health by using cross-sectional quantitative methods and only a few amounts of qualitative studies analyzed the personal experiences of individuals with work addiction. The aim of the current study was to explore and analyze the associations between working habits, physical health status, and health behaviors among individuals at risk of work addiction.

Methods

In our previous study, applying a valid work addiction measure, we have identified a group of individuals who showed a high risk of work addiction and we asked them to participate in the current study. Finally, 29 individuals (15 males and 14 females) have been asked by a semi-structured interview. Topics of career orientation, working habits, work motivations, experiences of work addiction, and physical and mental health have been involved in the interviews. The texts of the interviews have been analyzed by qualitative content analysis, by using both deductive and inductive methods. We applied the six steps of thematic analysis by Braun and Clarke (2006).

Results

Individuals with a high risk of work addiction have reported several negative signs of deterioration of physical health as a consequence of excessive work, such as motoric diseases, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, obesity, sleep disorders, and burnout. They have experienced negative changes in their health behavior too: unhealthy eating behaviors, lack of physical activity, and a lower need for sleep have been reported.

Conclusion

Our results have indicated that at-risk population considered physical health symptoms as consequences of excessive work and work addiction. Considering our results, work addiction is not a “positive addiction”, moreover, the problem has to be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction because the negative consequences of overwork have been experienced by these individuals.

Open access

Abstract

This paper presents an experimental study of abrasive waterjet turning of an extrusion aluminum alloy (AlMg0,7Si). The aim of the paper is to determine differences of two methods from the point of view of machined surface quality and the depth of penetration, i.e., the diameter of the parts after the turning process. During the experiments, the traverse speed of the cutting head and the rotation of the turned parts were changed, other parameters, like pressure of the water, abrasive mass flow rate were kept constant. Diameter and some surface roughness parameters of the test parts were measured after the machining. On the base of experimental results, advantages, and disadvantages of two methods are explained in the paper.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Bernadette Kun, Zsofia K. Takacs, Mara J. Richman, Mark D. Griffiths, and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background

During the past three decades, research interest in work addiction has increased significantly. Most definitions concerning work addiction have specifically contained personality-related elements. However, the results of empirical studies concerning personality and work addiction are both few and mixed. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of personality in the background of work addiction.

Methods

The present study systematically reviewed and empirically carried out a meta-analysis on all the published studies examining the association between personality variables and work addiction (n = 28).

Results

The results of the meta-analysis indicated that perfectionism, global and performance-based self-esteem, and negative affect had the strongest and most robust associations as personality risk factors of work addiction. Among the Big Five traits, extraversion, conscientiousness, and intellect/imaginations showed positive relationships with work addiction. However, these associations were weak.

Conclusions

Based on the meta-analysis, personality appears to explain only a small amount of the variance of work addiction and further studies are needed to assess the interaction between individual and environmental factors.

Open access

Publikálok, tehát létezem?!

Fiatal oktató-kutatók fenntartható válaszai a publikációs elvárásokra

I Publish, So I Exist?!

Sustainable Responses to Publication Expectations from Early Career Academics
Educatio
Authors: Andrea Juhászné Klér, Zsuzsanna Kun, and Andrea Toarniczky

A fiatal oktató-kutatókat a szabadság reménye, az értelemteli munka és a folyamatos tanulás lehetősége vonzza az egyetemi pályára. Az eltérő nemzeti és szakmai kontextusban felvázolt tapasztalatok nyomán a publikációs teljesítményelvárás központi elemként körvonalazódik, melyre az ellenállás nem lehetséges válasz, ugyanakkor az alkalmazkodás sem jelent egyszerű megoldást azon motivációk tükrében, amelyek miatt ezt a pályát választották.

A cikkben arra keresünk választ, hogy megvalósítható-e, s ha igen, akkor milyen formában egy fenntartható kutatási és publikációs gyakorlat a fiatal oktató-kutatók részéről, és ezek közül melyek azok, amelyeket a szervezet is sikeresként ismer el. Kutatásunk során sikerült megfogalmazni olyan kutatási és publikációs stratégiákat, amelyek túlmutatnak az ellenállás vagy alkalmazkodás leegyszerűsített kettőségén, ugyanakkor az egyén szintjén maradva ezek nem fenntarthatóak, szervezeti kultúra változást igényelnek.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: E. Somogyi, Á. Kun, J. Lázár, P. Bodor-Pesti, and D. Á. Nyitrainé Sárdy

Abstract

Quantitative evaluation of the horticultural crops has high importance to identify cultivars, describe the effect of the growing location and cultivation technology or define consumer's preference regarding the size and shape. Fruit traits of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) are mainly described by the bunch and berry morphology notably bunch and berry size, weight and shape. Ampelographers particularly evaluate the berry based on the seed number as it influences size and consumers' decision. In this study, berry morphological traits of the grapevine cultivar ‘Italia’ was investigated based on digital image analysis. Samples were collected from two vineyards in Hungary with different ecological and cultivation circumstances. Altogether 12 traits were investigated: weight, seed number, size and shape attributes. Results showed that berry morphological traits – except from the shape attributes – are not differing between the two sampling locations. In accordance with previous studies, seed number – ranging from 0 to 4 – had noticeable effect on the size attributes.

Open access

Aim

To examine the relationship between borderline personality symptoms and Internet addiction as well as the mediating role of mental health problems between them.

Methods

A total of 500 college students from Taiwan were recruited and assessed for symptoms of Internet addiction using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, borderline personality symptoms using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List and mental health problems using four subscales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and hostility). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test our hypothesis that borderline personality symptoms are associated with the severity of Internet addiction directly and also through the mediation of mental health problems.

Results

SEM analysis revealed that all paths in the hypothesized model were significant, indicating that borderline personality symptoms were directly related to the severity of Internet addiction as well as indirectly related to the severity of Internet addiction by increasing the severity of mental health problems.

Conclusion

Borderline personality symptoms and mental health problems should be taken into consideration when designing intervention programs for Internet addiction.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Eszter Kotyuk, Anna Magi, Andrea Eisinger, Orsolya Király, Andrea Vereczkei, Csaba Barta, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna Székely, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Judit Farkas, Bernadette Kun, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, Róbert Urbán, Kenneth Blum, and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background and aims

Changes in the nomenclature of addictions suggest a significant shift in the conceptualization of addictions, where non-substance related behaviors can also be classified as addictions. A large amount of data provides empirical evidence that there are overlaps of different types of addictive behaviors in etiology, phenomenology, and in the underlying psychological and biological mechanisms. Our aim was to investigate the co-occurrences of a wide range of substance use and behavioral addictions.

Methods

The present epidemiological analysis was carried out as part of the Psychological and Genetic Factors of the Addictive Behaviors (PGA) Study, where data were collected from 3,003 adolescents and young adults (42.6% males; mean age 21 years). Addictions to psychoactive substances and behaviors were rigorously assessed.

Results

Data is provided on lifetime occurrences of the assessed substance uses, their co-occurrences, the prevalence estimates of specific behavioral addictions, and co-occurrences of different substance use and potentially addictive behaviors. Associations were found between (i) smoking and problematic Internet use, exercising, eating disorders, and gambling (ii) alcohol consumption and problematic Internet use, problematic online gaming, gambling, and eating disorders, and (iii) cannabis use and problematic online gaming and gambling.

Conclusions

The results suggest a large overlap between the occurrence of these addictions and behaviors and underlies the importance of investigating the possible common psychological, genetic and neural pathways. These data further support concepts such as the Reward Deficiency Syndrome and the component model of addictions that propose a common phenomenological and etiological background of different addictive and related behaviors.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Róbert Urbán, Gábor Varga, Marc N. Potenza, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna Szekely, Borbála Paksi, Bernadette Kun, Judit Farkas, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background and aims

Due to its important role in both healthy groups and those with physical, mental and behavioral disorders, impulsivity is a widely researched construct. Among various self-report questionnaires of impulsivity, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is arguably the most frequently used measure. Despite its international use, inconsistencies in the suggested factor structure of its latest version, the BIS-11, have been observed repeatedly in different samples. The goal of the present study was therefore to test the factor structure of the BIS-11 in several samples.

Methods

Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on two representative samples of Hungarian adults (N = 2,457; N = 2,040) and a college sample (N = 765).

Results

Analyses did not confirm the original model of the measure in any of the samples. Based on explorative factor analyses, an alternative three-factor model (cognitive impulsivity; behavioral impulsivity; and impatience/restlessness) of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is suggested. The pattern of the associations between the three factors and aggression, exercise, smoking, alcohol use, and psychological distress supports the construct validity of this new model.

Discussion

The new measurement model of impulsivity was confirmed in two independent samples. However, it requires further cross-cultural validation to clarify the content of self-reported impulsivity in both clinical and nonclinical samples.

Open access