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Diabetes mellitus and concurrent hypertension disorder are dreadful all over the world and are often managed by some drugs, such as metformin hydrochloride (MFH), enalapril maleate (ENM), and captopril (CAP). In this work, a reliable and fast quantitative analysis of these three components in tablets was carried out by Tchebichef image moment method and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares on three-dimensional (3D) spectra obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PAD). 3D spectra were obtained within only 2 min, and linear quantitative models were established by stepwise regression based on the calculated image moments. Among these two methods, Tchebichef image moment method showed outcome distinction. The correlation coefficients of cross-validation (R Loo-cv) are more than 0.988, while their recoveries are 100.1 ± 1.7% (MFH), 95.4 ± 5.4% (ENM), and 105.3 ± 5.7% (CAP), respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) are less than 5.42%. The proposed methods were also applied to the analysis of real tablets. This study reveals the effectiveness and convenience of the proposed image-moment method that may be a potential technology for the quality control and investigation of drugs in routine analysis.

Open access
Authors: Lu Li, Dan-Dan Xu, Jing-Xin Chai, Di Wang, Lin Li, Ling Zhang, Li Lu, Chee H. Ng, Gabor S. Ungvari, Song-Li Mei and Yu-Tao Xiang

Background and aims

Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is common in university students. A number of studies have examined the prevalence of IAD in Chinese university students, but the results have been inconsistent. This is a meta-analysis of the prevalence of IAD and its associated factors in Chinese university students.


Both English (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase) and Chinese (Wan Fang Database and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases were systematically and independently searched from their inception until January 16, 2017.


Altogether 70 studies covering 122,454 university students were included in the meta-analysis. Using the random-effects model, the pooled overall prevalence of IAD was 11.3% (95% CI: 10.1%–12.5%). When using the 8-item Young Diagnostic Questionnaire, the 10-item modified Young Diagnostic Questionnaire, the 20-item Internet Addiction Test, and the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the pooled prevalence of IAD was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.7%–10.4%), 9.3% (95% CI: 7.6%–11.4%), 11.2% (95% CI: 8.8%–14.3%), and 14.0% (95% CI: 10.6%–18.4%), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the pooled prevalence of IAD was significantly associated with the measurement instrument (Q = 9.41, p = .024). Male gender, higher grade, and urban abode were also significantly associated with IAD. The prevalence of IAD was also higher in eastern and central of China than in its northern and western regions (10.7% vs. 8.1%, Q = 4.90, p = .027).


IAD is common among Chinese university students. Appropriate strategies for the prevention and treatment of IAD in this population need greater attention.

Open access