Authors:Máté Zsigmond Leskó, Richárd Zoltán Papp, Boglárka Anna Topa, Ferenc Kristály, Tamás Vigh, and Norbert Zajzon
The Úrkút manganese ore deposit (Transdanubian Range, Hungary) is one of the largest manganese accumulations to be formed during the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. In the past 60 years, the area was investigated intensively. The core storage facility of the manganese mine had more than 20,000 sample pieces. Most of these samples have never been investigated. During this study, which is the first widespread clay mineral study in the footwall of the Úrkút manganese ore deposit, we investigated 40 samples from seven boreholes (footwall rocks, black/gray shales below and above the first ore bed, and manganese carbonate ores). Although previous studies assumed that smectite is associated only with the ore beds, our research revealed its appearance in the footwall (Pliensbachian) as well. Simultaneously, tripoli (the local name of completely bleached chert) can also be found in the footwall. Based on the investigated samples, a sharp geochemical difference was detected between Pliensbachian and Toarcian sediments. In this paper, we try to trace the relationship between the smectite content of the footwall and the ore bed and compare these results with the observed geochemical changes. Based on the new data, we assume that the ore accumulation was caused by a flow system (upwelling-controlled ore formation).
Authors:Máté Zsigmond Leskó, Richárd Zoltán Papp, Ferenc Kristály, József Pálfy, and Norbert Zajzon
Although the Mesozoic rocks of the Transdanubian Range have been the subject of a multitude of different studies, mineralogical research is largely underrepresented. The clay mineralogy of Lower Jurassic (especially the Pliensbachian and Toarcian) strata was broadly investigated earlier; however, systematic high-resolution clay mineralogical studies remain scarce. Here we present a mineralogical study focusing on the Upper Pliensbachian strata of the Lókút-Hosszúárok section, located near the Eplény Manganese Ore Field. We identified dioctahedral smectite, randomly interstratified illite/smectite, illite as 10 Å phyllosilicate, quartz and cristobalite. Based on our new results we propose that the smectite was formed by aging of Mg or Fe hydroxide-silica precipitates. The smectite and cristobalite were presumably formed from the siliceous tests of radiolarians, whose abundance was controlled by a local upwelling system. The occurrence of Pliensbachian smectite in the Lókút outcrop shows similarities with the Úrkút smectites known from both Pliensbachian and Toarcian strata, which implies that similar processes controlled the sedimentation during the Pliensbachian as well as during the black (gray) shale-hosted ore accumulation in the Eplény and Úrkút basins.