Building Information Modelling (BIM) has become an emerging digital technology in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. There is a growing demand on applying BIM for sustainable design including the building energy simulation (BES). Lack of sufficient interoperability has caused barriers to utilize the information from BIM for BES. In this study, the interoperability between BIM and four different BES tools (i.e., Ecotect, EQUEST, Design Builder and IES-VE) was explored by using a case study of a residential building in the design stage. The misrepresented information from BIM to multiple BES tools were identified based on six different categories of building information parameters. The research proposed an approach of creating gbXML file with an improved integrity of information in BIM. Overall, this study would lead to further work in developing platforms for improving the information transformation from BIM to BES.
A densitometric HPTLC method for analysis of cordifolioside A both in 60% methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia and in a commercial formulation has been established and validated. Cordifolioside A was separated on aluminum-backed silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform-methanol 85:15 (%, v/v) as mobile phase. A compact band was obtained for cordifolioside A at RF 0.52 ± 0.03. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 20.12 and 60.36 ng per band, respectively. The highly precise and accurate method was used for analysis of cordifolioside A.
Plants secondary metabolites undergoes qualitative and quantitative variation due to environmental and growth factors. It is a crucial factor to select the proper time for collection of medicinal plants to assure maximum content of active components reflected as maximum efficacy. Olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) are known traditionally for their antidiabetic effect. The secoiridoid glycoside oleuropein is the main active component of Olive leaves responsible for the biological activity. The current study was conducted to monitor the seasonal variation of oleuropein in Olives leaves collected from the same location. To achieve this goal a validated HPLC method following the ICH guidelines was established. Separation was conducted using RP18 column and a mobile phase consisted of ultrapure water containing 20% acetonitrile and 1% acetic acid. Detection was performed at 254 nm with 1 mL/min flow rate. The method was simple, linear, accurate, precise, specific and robust. The analyses revealed considerable variations in the level of oleuropein throughout the year. This variation cannot be explained by temperature variation during the year. Two points of high levels of oleuropein were detected prior to flowering stage and ripening of the fruits. The levels of growth regulators most likely is responsible for the increased production of oleuropein. It is recommended that leaves intended for medicinal use to be collected during the fruiting stage prior to fruit ripening.