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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Michelle Colder Carras
,
Vasileios Stavropoulos
,
Frosso Motti-Stefanidi
,
Alain Labrique
, and
Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract

In August of 2021, China imposed severe restrictions on children’s online gaming time. We argue that such a policy may seem useful on the surface but does not reflect the current evidence concerning prevention of disordered gaming. Videogame play is normal for children worldwide, and like other leisure activities can lead to benefits for the majority and problems for a minority. Problematic or disordered play results from the interaction of multiple risk factors that are not addressed by draconian policy measures. Identifying these factors through stakeholder-engaged research and current evidence will be much more likely to succeed in preventing disordered gaming and promoting youth wellbeing.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Espen Aarseth
,
Anthony M. Bean
,
Huub Boonen
,
Michelle Colder Carras
,
Mark Coulson
,
Dimitri Das
,
Jory Deleuze
,
Elza Dunkels
,
Johan Edman
,
Christopher J. Ferguson
,
Maria C. Haagsma
,
Karin Helmersson Bergmark
,
Zaheer Hussain
,
Jeroen Jansz
,
Daniel Kardefelt-Winther
,
Lawrence Kutner
,
Patrick Markey
,
Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen
,
Nicole Prause
,
Andrew Przybylski
,
Thorsten Quandt
,
Adriano Schimmenti
,
Vladan Starcevic
,
Gabrielle Stutman
,
Jan Van Looy
, and
Antonius J. Van Rooij

Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal, and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Second, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Third, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as a part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Antonius J. van Rooij
,
Christopher J. Ferguson
,
Michelle Colder Carras
,
Daniel Kardefelt-Winther
,
Jing Shi
,
Espen Aarseth
,
Anthony M. Bean
,
Karin Helmersson Bergmark
,
Anne Brus
,
Mark Coulson
,
Jory Deleuze
,
Pravin Dullur
,
Elza Dunkels
,
Johan Edman
,
Malte Elson
,
Peter J. Etchells
,
Anne Fiskaali
,
Isabela Granic
,
Jeroen Jansz
,
Faltin Karlsen
,
Linda K. Kaye
,
Bonnie Kirsh
,
Andreas Lieberoth
,
Patrick Markey
,
Kathryn L. Mills
,
Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen
,
Amy Orben
,
Arne Poulsen
,
Nicole Prause
,
Patrick Prax
,
Thorsten Quandt
,
Adriano Schimmenti
,
Vladan Starcevic
,
Gabrielle Stutman
,
Nigel E. Turner
,
Jan van Looy
, and
Andrew K. Przybylski

We greatly appreciate the care and thought that is evident in the 10 commentaries that discuss our debate paper, the majority of which argued in favor of a formalized ICD-11 gaming disorder. We agree that there are some people whose play of video games is related to life problems. We believe that understanding this population and the nature and severity of the problems they experience should be a focus area for future research. However, moving from research construct to formal disorder requires a much stronger evidence base than we currently have. The burden of evidence and the clinical utility should be extremely high, because there is a genuine risk of abuse of diagnoses. We provide suggestions about the level of evidence that might be required: transparent and preregistered studies, a better demarcation of the subject area that includes a rationale for focusing on gaming particularly versus a more general behavioral addictions concept, the exploration of non-addiction approaches, and the unbiased exploration of clinical approaches that treat potentially underlying issues, such as depressive mood or social anxiety first. We acknowledge there could be benefits to formalizing gaming disorder, many of which were highlighted by colleagues in their commentaries, but we think they do not yet outweigh the wider societal and public health risks involved. Given the gravity of diagnostic classification and its wider societal impact, we urge our colleagues at the WHO to err on the side of caution for now and postpone the formalization.

Open access