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Authors: Sándor Szekeres, Alexandra Juhász, Milán Kondor, Nóra Takács, László Sugár and Sándor Hornok

Reports of Sarcocystis rileyi-like protozoa (‘rice breast disease’) from anseriform birds had been rare in Europe until the last two decades, when S. rileyi was identified in northern Europe and the UK. However, despite the economic losses resulting from S. rileyi infection, no recent accounts are available on its presence (which can be suspected) in most parts of central, western, southern and eastern Europe. Between 2014 and 2019, twelve mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were observed to have rice breast disease in Hungary, and the last one of these 12 cases allowed molecular identification of S. rileyi, as reported here. In addition, S. rileyi was molecularly identified in the faeces of one red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The hunting season for mallards in Hungary lasts from mid-August to January, which in Europe coincides with the wintering migration of anseriform birds towards the south. Based on this, as well as bird ringing data, it is reasonable to suppose that the first S. rileyi-infected mallards arrived in Hungary from the north. on the other hand, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which are final hosts of S. rileyi, are ubiquitous in Hungary, and our molecular finding confirms an already established autochthonous life cycle of S. rileyi in the region. Taken together, this is the first evidence for the occurrence of S. rileyi in Hungary and its region.

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Authors: Krisztin Szőke, Attila D. Sándor, Sándor A. Boldogh, Tamás Görföl, Jan Votýpka, Nóra Takács, Péter Estók, Dávid Kováts, Alexandra Corduneanu, Viktor Molnár, Jenő Kontschán and Sándor Hornok

Kinetoplastids are flagellated protozoa, including principally free-living bodonids and exclusively parasitic trypanosomatids. In the most species-rich genus, Trypanosoma, more than thirty species were found to infect bats worldwide. Bat trypanosomes are also known to have played a significant role in the evolution of T. cruzi, a species with high veterinary medical significance. Although preliminary data attested the occurrence of bat trypanosomes in Hungary, these were never sought for with molecular methods. Therefore, amplification of an approx. 900-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of kinetoplastids was attempted from 307 ixodid and 299 argasid ticks collected from bats, and from 207 cimicid bugs collected from or near bats in Hungary and Romania. Three samples, one per each bat ectoparasite group, were PCR positive. Sequencing revealed the presence of DNA from free-living bodonids (Bodo saltans and neobodonids), but no trypanosomes were detected. The most likely source of bodonid DNA detected here in engorged bat ectoparasites is the blood of their bat hosts. However, how bodonids were acquired by bats, can only be speculated. Bats are known to drink from freshwater bodies, i.e. the natural habitats of B. saltans and related species, allowing bats to ingest bodonids. Consequently, these results suggest that at least the DNA of bodonids might pass through the alimentary mucosa of bats into their circulation. The above findings highlight the importance of studying bats and other mammals for the occurrence of bodonids in their blood and excreta, with potential relevance to the evolution of free-living kinetoplastids towards parasitism.

Open access
Authors: István Takács, Ilona Benkő, Erzsébet Toldy, Norbert Wikonkál, László Szekeres, Edit Bodolay, Emese Kiss, Zoltán Jambrik, Boglárka Szabó, Béla Merkely, Zsuzsa Valkusz, Tibor Kovács, András Szabó, Orsolya Grigoreff, Zsolt Nagy, Judit Demeter, Henrik Csaba Horváth, Nóra Bittner, Szabolcs Várbíró and Péter Lakatos

A D-vitamin anyagcseréje egyedülálló az emberi szervezetben. Hatása szerteágazó, szinte minden szervrendszerben érvényesül. Hiánya az egyik legnagyobb egészségügyi probléma a civilizált világban. A probléma megoldása széles körű összefogást sürget. Ezt felismerve, a D-vitamin-hiány következményeivel küzdő legnagyobb magyarországi orvostársaságok közös konszenzust dolgoztak ki a D-vitamin-hiány jelentőségéről, felismerési lehetőségeiről, a prevenció és a kezelés javasolt módjairól. A társaságok szakmai irányelvei mellett ennek a konszenzusnak az eredménye iránymutatást ad a gyakorló orvosoknak a D-vitamin-hiány megelőzéséhez és kezeléséhez. Emellett szeretné ráirányítani a szakmai döntéshozók és a laikus közönség figyelmét a probléma fontosságára.

Open access