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Summary

The stems of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) ex Havil have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diseases and improve health. There is evident evidence that alkaloids constituents are mainly responsible for the beneficial effects of this plant medicine. The amounts of the major bioactive alkaloids in this plant vary widely with species, habitat, and as such, and establishment of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint for quality control of this herbal medicine is of particular importance. The most alkaloids are used for medicine treatment and research. On the basis of the chromatographic data, a consistent HPLC fingerprint pattern containing 15 common peaks was obtained. Among these common peaks, four were identified as rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, corynoxeine, and isocorynoxeine. On the basis of this HPLC fingerprint and principal-components analysis, the quality of fifteen samples from different producing areas of China was objectively assessed. To summarize, the data described in this study offer valuable information for quality control and proper use of U. rhynchophylla (Miq.) ex Havil.

Open access

Summary

Chestnut exhibits anti-inflammatory, styptic, anti-diarrhea, and analgestic effects as a traditional Chinese medicine. There is increasing evidence that shows that the consumption of chestnuts has become more important in human nutrition due to the health benefits provided by the antioxidants. The phenolic compounds are responsible for major bioactivities, such as anti-tumor and anti-oxidation. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode array detection (DAD) was established for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds (gallic acid, GA; protocatechuic acid, PR; catechin, CA; epicatechin, EP; quercetin, QU; kaempferol, KA) in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima blume) kernel. The sample followed by separation on Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, id., 5 μm) with gradient elution of methanol-1.0% acetate acid solution as a mobile phase, at a temperature of 30°C, under the ratio of 1.2 mL min−1, with 5 μL injection volume, and multi-wavelength synthesis was used with DAD. The correlation coefficients were larger than 0.999, the recoveries were 97.58% for GA, 100.41% for PA, 96.23% for CA, 101.38% for QU, 99.15% for EP, and 98.60% for KA, relative standard deviation (RSD) were 1.04% for GA, 1.21% for PA, 1.09% for CA, 1.19% for QU, 1.06% for EP, and 1.20% for KA. This method was applied for the determination of phenolics in chestnut kernel and was found to be fast, sensitive, and suitable.

Open access

Summary

A simple and rapid HPLC method using a photodiode array (PDA) detector for the analysis of 3-hydroxycarboplatin and its related complex has been established for the first time. Separation of 3-hydroxycarboplatin and 3-hydroxy-1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (3-HO-cbdca) was carried out on a Phenomenex ODS3 column using an aqueous solution containing 50 mM ammonium acetate and 5 mM sodium 1-octanesulfonate as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.8 mL min−1, the column temperature was 40°C, and the detection wavelength was 230 nm for 3-hydroxycarboplatin and 220 nm for 3-HO-cbdca. Different analytical performance parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, stability of the solution, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and system suitability were determined using the Empower 2 software. The calibration curve of standard 3-hydroxycarboplatin showed good linearity (r = 0.9995) within the range 0.5–1.4 mg mL−1. The method was accurate and precise, with an average accuracy of 100.4% (RSD = 1.53%, n = 9), and the results of the system suitability test showed symmetrical peaks, good resolution (R s), and repeatability. It can be applied to the quality control of 3-hydroxycarboplatin.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims: Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and depression have negative consequences on individuals' mental health, but their relationships are complex. This three-wave longitudinal study aimed to detect the metacognitive mechanisms underlying the association between IGD tendency and depression based on the self-regulatory executive function model. Methods: A total of 1,243 Chinese undergraduate student gamers (57% female, M = 19.77, SD = 1.29) were recruited at the baseline survey (Wave 1 [W1]), with 622 and 574 of them taking part in the two follow-up surveys (Wave 2 [W2] at 6 and Wave 3 [W3] at 12 months later), respectively. Results: The three-wave path model demonstrated, after controlling for the autoregressive effect of each variable, that depression consistently predicted IGD tendency but not vice versa, while negative but not positive metacognitions about online gaming (MOG) significantly predicted both depression and IGD tendency. Moreover, two statistically significant mediation paths: (i) negative MOG [W1] → depression [W2] → IGD tendency [W3]; and (ii) depression [W1] → negative MOG [W2] → IGD tendency [W3] were identified. Discussion and conclusions: These findings extend the understanding of the associations among depression, IGD tendency, and MOG, highlighting how negative MOG has a stronger prospective effect than positive MOG on depression and IGD tendency, and also reveal the mutual mediation effects of depression and negative MOG on IGD tendency. Integrated programmes with both emotional regulation training and Metacognitive Therapy are recommended for IGD treatment.

Open access

A rapid method has been used for simultaneous identification of both hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM, the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza BGE.) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-offlight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). A total of 58 compounds extracted by methanol were detected and tentatively identified within 20 min, including hydrophilic phenolics, lipophilic diterpenoids, a verbascose, and several organic acids. These compounds were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column and identified based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation patterns under the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Among them, micranthin B and 9-oxo-10E,12Zoctadecadienoic acid were reported in RSM for the first time. Their fragmentation patterns in electrospray ionization (ESI)—MS/MS spectra were first investigated by matching their accurate molecular masses. This contribution presented one of the first reports on the analysis of hydrophilic phenolics and lipophilic diterpenoids from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae using UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The results demonstrated that UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method could be applied to rapidly and expediently describe and provide comprehensive chemical information for simultaneous analysis of two different polar components in RSM.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Gambling disorder (GD) is a mental disorder with a relatively higher prevalence in university students compared to adolescents and adults. Its reciprocity with mental being indicators, such as psychological flourishing, would be expected, but prior to this study had not yet been empirically examined. In addition, the predictive value of purpose in life (PIL) on university students' GD and psychological flourishing also remained unknown. This 1-year longitudinal study was the first to test the potential bidirectional relationships among PIL, self-reported GD symptoms, and psychological flourishing.

Methods

In this study, a total of 283 university students (39.6% females; age = 18–27 years, M = 20.47, SD = 1.15) completed an anonymous questionnaire at both baseline and a year later in a follow-up study.

Results

The results of our cross-lagged analysis did not show the hypothesized reciprocity between GD symptoms and psychological flourishing (P > 0.05). However, PIL significantly predicted fewer GD symptoms (β = −0.23, P < 0.001) and higher levels of psychological flourishing (β = 0.30, P < 0.001) in the follow-up study. Moreover, psychological flourishing predicted PIL a year later.

Conclusion

The findings demonstrate the potential efficacy of purpose/meaning oriented interventions in gambling prevention and in well-being promotion programs.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Ji-Bin Li
,
Anise M.S. Wu
,
Li-Fen Feng
,
Yang Deng
,
Jing-Hua Li
,
Yu-Xia Chen
,
Jin-Chen Mai
,
Phoenix K.H. Mo
, and
Joseph T.F. Lau

Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic online social networking use is prevalent among adolescents, but consensus about the instruments and their optimal cut-off points is lacking. This study derived an optimal cut-off point for the validated Online Social Networking Addiction (OSNA) scale to identify probable OSNA cases among Chinese adolescents.

Methods

A survey recruited 4,951 adolescent online social networking users. Latent profile analysis (LPA) and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were applied to the validated 8-item OSNA scale to determine its optimal cut-off point.

Results

The 3-class model was selected by multiple criteria, and validated in a randomly split-half subsample. Accordingly, participants were categorized into the low risk (36.4%), average risk (50.4%), and high risk (13.2%) groups. The highest risk group was regarded as “cases” and the rest as “non-cases”, serving as the reference standard in ROC analysis, which identified an optimal cut-off point of 23 (sensitivity: 97.2%, specificity: 95.2%). The cut-off point was used to classify participants into positive (probable case: 17:0%) and negative groups according to their OSNA scores. The positive group (probable cases) reported significantly longer duration and higher intensity of online social networking use, and higher prevalence of Internet addiction than the negative group.

Conclusions

The classification strategy and results are potentially useful for future research that measure problematic online social networking use and its impact on health among adolescents. The approach can facilitate research that requires cut-off points of screening tools but gold standards are unavailable.

Open access