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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Nuria Mallorquí-Bagué
,
Fernando Fernández-Aranda
,
María Lozano-Madrid
,
Roser Granero
,
Gemma Mestre-Bach
,
Marta Baño
,
Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez
,
Mónica Gómez-Peña
,
Neus Aymamí
,
José M. Menchón
, and
Susana Jiménez-Murcia

Background and aims

The recent growth of Internet use has led to an increase of potentially problematic behaviors that can be engaged online, such as online gambling or Internet gaming. The aim of this study is to better conceptualize Internet gaming disorder (IGD) by comparing it with gambling disorder (GD) patients who only gamble online (online GD).

Methods

A total of 288 adult patients (261 online GD and 27 IGD) completed self-reported questionnaires for exploring psychopathological symptoms, food addiction (FA), and personality traits.

Results

Both clinical groups presented higher psychopathological scores and less functional personality traits when compared with a normative Spanish population. However, when comparing IGD to online GD, some singularities emerged. First, patients with IGD were younger, more likely single and unemployed, and they also presented lower age of disorder onset. In addition, they displayed lower somatization and depressive scores together with lower prevalence of tobacco use but higher FA scores and higher mean body mass index. Finally, they presented lower novelty seeking and persistence traits.

Discussion

GD is fully recognized as a behavioral addiction, but IGD has been included in the Appendix of DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction that needs further study. Our findings suggest that IGD and online GD patients share some emotional distress and personality traits, but patients with IGD also display some differential characteristics, namely younger age, lower novelty seeking scores and higher BMI, and FA scores.

Conclusions

IGD presents some characteristics that are not extensive to online GD. These specificities have potential clinical implications and they need to be further studied.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Roser Granero
,
Susana Valero-Solis
,
Fernando Fernández-Aranda
,
Mónica Gómez-Peña
,
Laura Moragas
,
Teresa Mena-Moreno
,
Amparo del Pino-Gutierrez
,
Ester Codina
,
Virginia Martín-Romera
,
Gemma Casalé
,
Zaida Agüera
,
Isabel Baenas-Soto
,
Eduardo Valenciano-Mendoza
,
Bernat Mora-Maltas
,
Isabel Sánchez
,
María Lozano-Madrid
,
José M. Menchón
, and
Susana Jiménez Murcia

Abstract

Background and aims

The significant increase in the prevalence of gambling disorder (GD) among young adults in recent years has attracted interest in determining therapeutic efficiency in this sector of the population. The aim of this work was to estimate the response trajectories of gambling severity during the six-month follow-up after a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program in young adult patients and to identify the main variables associated with each trajectory.

Methods

The sample included n = 192 patients, aged 19–35 years old, seeking treatment for GD. Response trajectories were identified through latent class growth analysis.

Results

Three trajectories emerged: T1 (n = 118, 61.5%), composed of patients with severe GD at pre-treatment and good evolution to recovery; T2 (n = 62, 32.3%), with patients with moderate-high GD affectation at baseline and good evolution to recovery; and T3 (n = 12, 6.3%), with participants with severe baseline GD severity and poor evolution after CBT (Abbott, 2019). The highest risk of poor therapeutic outcomes was related to lower social index positions, high emotional distress, high scores in harm avoidance and low scores in self-directedness.

Discussion and conclusions

Differences in the response trajectories at short-term follow-up after CBT reveal heterogeneity in the samples including young and young-adult GD patients. Patients' phenotype at baseline should be considered when developing efficient, person-centered intervention programs, which should comprise strategies aimed at increasing emotional regulation capacities, self-esteem and self-efficacy, with the aim of avoiding relapses in the medium-long term after therapy.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Fernando Fernández-Aranda
,
Roser Granero
,
Gemma Mestre-Bach
,
Trevor Steward
,
Astrid Müller
,
Matthias Brand
,
Teresa Mena-Moreno
,
Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz
,
Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez
,
Laura Moragas
,
Núria Mallorquí-Bagué
,
Neus Aymamí
,
Mónica Gómez-Peña
,
María Lozano-Madrid
,
José M. Menchón
, and
Susana Jiménez-Murcia

Background and aims

Pathological buying (PB) is a behavioral addiction that presents comorbidity with several psychiatric disorders. Despite the increase in the prevalence estimates of PB, relatively few PB instruments have been developed. Our aim was to assess the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the pathological buying screener (PBS) and to explore the associations between PB, psychopathology, and personality traits.

Methods

A total of 511 participants, including gambling disorder (GD) and eating disorder (ED) patients diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria, as well as healthy controls (HCs), took part in the study.

Results

Higher PB prevalence was obtained in ED patients than in the other two study groups (ED 12.5% vs. 1.3% HC and 2.7% GD). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) verified the 13-item structure of the PBS, and indexes of convergent and discriminant capacity were estimated. CFA confirmed the structure in two factors (excessive buying behavior and loss of control) with excellent internal consistency (α = .92 and .86, respectively). Good convergent capacity was obtained with external psychopathology and personality measures (positive correlations with novelty seeking and negative associations with self-directedness and harm avoidance were found). Good discriminative capacity to differentiate between the study groups was obtained.

Discussion and conclusions

This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the Spanish adaptation of the PBS. Female sex, higher impulsivity, and higher psychopathology were associated with PB.

Open access