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In her interviews and essays, Ulitskaya has often alluded to the great effect that Pasternak’s poetry, and especially Doctor Zhivago, has had on her. In one of the episodes of her novel The Big Green Tent, she describes a first encounter with Pasternak’s novel; the teacher of literature who plays a decisive role in the lives of the main characters reads a manuscript copy of the novel and describes it as a worthy continuation of 19th-century Russian prose.

The parallels between the novels The Big Green Tent and Doctor Zhivago have al- ready been the subject of scholarly attention but the connection between Jacobs Ladder and the Pasternak novel has not been studied so far. In this study, I examine this connec- tion: on the one hand, at the level of macrostructures, the chronotope, the patterns of the heroes’ fates and the principal thematic elements, and on the other hand, at the level of cer- tain microstructures.

The latter are linked to the present-day plot of Ulitskaya’s novel and, more specifi- cally, Nora’s life. Nora reads the correspondence and notes that her grandfather left for her as well as the KGB documents about Yakov Osetsky towards the end of her life (and the plot itself). As a result of this, she wishes to write the novel that her grandfather Yakov could not due to the historical situation.

The process of Nora’s confrontation with the past and her becoming a writer are coded in Ulitskaya’s text by two of the poems of the Zhivago cycle Winter Night and August and also in the related episodes of Pasternak’s novel. All of these have biographical relevance and present creation as a fundamental element of life, which is closely linked to love and death as well as metaphysical experience. The symbolic parallel of this in Zhivago’s August is the transfiguration of Jesus and “the light without a flame” that blinds the disciples. This symbolism appears in Jacobs Ladder on two levels: first, in the stage set that Nora creates for King Lear, and second, as a concomitant of her confrontation with the past and her becoming a writer.

It is in this way that the fundamental elements of Pasternak’s life and poetry play a crucial role at the level of microstructures: they provide the context and symbolism of the central question of Ulitskaya’s novel, the nature of “the essence” of the human.

Open access

Феномен музыки в прозе Л. Улицкой

The Phenomenon of Music in L. Ulitskaya’s prose

Studia Slavica
Author:
Тюнде Сабо

В данной статье рассматривается роль музыки в романах Л. \xD0\xA3лицкой. Из высказываний Улицкой ясно, что музыка всегда играла чрезвычайно важную роль в ее жизни. Это отражается и в ее твор-честве: музыка как тема и аспект жизни героев является основополагающим фактором во многих ее произведениях.

В данной статье мы попытаемся исследовать поэтическую функцию музыки в этих произведени-ях. На основе анализа произведений Веселые похороны, Казус Кукоцкого, Зеленый шатер и Лестни-ца Якова можно выделить три основных аспекта этой функции: создание референциального фона, создание специфического музыкального дискурса и структурирование различных уровней текста.

Создание референциального фона связано с формированием мира героев: герои посещают реаль-ные места (музыкальные школы, концертные залы и т. д.), характерные для данного исторического периода и они слушают или играют конкретные произведения конкретных композиторов. Прото-типами для некоторых героев послужили музыканты, сыгравшие важную роль в русской культуре.

Герои-музыканты Улицкой относятся к музыке по-разному: они могут быть воспринимателем, композитором или теоретиком музыки, и, как правило, они признают музыку как основной прин-цип жизни. Формулировка чувств и идей о музыке, взятая в целом, создает в произведениях вполне определенный музыкальный дискурс, который взаимодействует с другими дискурсами (научным, религиозным и т. д.), связанными с героями-немузыкантами.

Само по себе создание музыкального референциального фона не входит, а музыкальный дискурс входит лишь отчасти в круг интермедиальных явлений. Взаимодействие музыки и литературы как двух видов искусства наиболее ярко проявляется в использовании музыкальных \xD1\x81труктур. В статье представлены два примера, в которых макро- и микроструктуры текстов организованы по прин-ципу музыкального рондо. В повести Веселые похороны чередование настоящего времени процесса умирания главного героя и прошлых эпизодов, связанных с второстепенными персонажами, со-ставляет форму музыкального рондо, а в одном из эпизодов романа Зеленый шатер форма рондо вытекает из чередования различных форм высказывания (голос повествователя / внутренний голос героя / переплетение голоса повествователя и голоса героя).

В целом, произведения Улицкой чрезвычайно разнообразно используют литературную репрезен-тацию музыки. Созданный в них музыкальный мир, характерный для ограниченной части сюжета, предстает в сочетании с другими сегментами культуры и способами их репрезентации, в результате чего возникает очень богатая, синкретическая поэтика романов.

Open access

HANNA: Gamifikált digitális tananyag hátrányos helyzetű tanulók nyelvtanulásának segítésére

HANNA: Gamified Digital Supplementary Course – Material Developed for Pupils from Disadvantaged Backgrounds

Educatio
Authors:
Kálmán Abari
,
Fruzsina Szabó
, and
Tünde Polonyi

Összefoglaló. Gyorsan változó világunkban az oktatásnak lépést kell tartania a változásokkal, ezért szükséges a módszertan folyamatos fejlesztése, a tanítási-tanulási folyamat harmonikusabb illesztése a változó igényekhez. Oktatásunk komoly problémája a tanulók teljesítményében mutatkozó hatalmas különbség, ezért fontos szempont a hátrányos helyzetű tanulók eredményességének javítása. Tanulmányunk célja, hogy bemutassunk egy új fejlesztésű digitális nyelvoktató tananyagot (HANNA), amely hátrányos helyzetű 5–7. osztályos diákoknak készült, tabletalapú, és angol nyelvet oktat a tanár facilitáló segítségével. Bemutatjuk, hogy a HANNA szerkezetének kialakításában milyen szempontokat vettünk figyelembe, ismertetjük a tananyag felépítését és a tanulók motiválása érdekében megvalósított gamifikált elemeket.

Summary. As the world of education and technology is changing at a breathtaking speed, the methodology needs to be constantly updated, while the process of teaching-learning has to adjust to fresh demands. One of the most severe issues in our education is the increasing gap between students’ achievements, especially in low socio-economic environments. The purpose of our study is to introduce a new digital language course-material (HANNA) created specifically for pupils in grade 5–7 in low SES backgrounds. It is primarily to be employed in English language classes (ELT), is operated on tablets, and teaches English with the facilitating work of the teacher. We explore the principles underlying HANNA, reveal its structure and mechanism while detailing the gamified elements of the programme.

Open access

A COVID–19 járvány hatása a leghátrányosabb helyzetű településeken élők mindennapjaira: ahogy a hátrányos helyzetűek és a szociális szolgáltatásokat nyújtók látják

The effects of Covid-19 on the everyday life of people living in the most disadvantaged areas: as they and professionals in the social service sector see

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Beáta Dávid
,
Tünde Szabó
,
Éva Huszti
, and
István Bukovics

Összefoglaló. Jelen tanulmányunk a biztonság társadalmi aspektusait egy speciális csoport, a mélyszegénységben élő családok és az őket segítő szakemberek körében vizsgálja a COVID–19 idején. Kvalitatív módszerrel (csoportos és egyéni interjúk) a makro- (szociális támogatórendszer) és a mikrotársadalmi biztonság dimenziók összefüggését, valamint a mikroszintű biztonság dimenziók közti viszonyokat elemezzük. Ez utóbbi dimenziók leírásánál a kisgyermekes családok munkaerőpiaci és ezzel együtt anyagi helyzetére, mentális egészségi állapotukra, valamint az oktatási helyzet bemutatására koncentrálunk. Az egyes témák leírásánál az érintett családok és az őket segítő szakemberek helyzetértékelése is megjelenik a velük készített interjúk elemzése alapján.

Summary. This study examines the social aspects of security among a specific group of families living in extreme poverty and the professionals helping them during Covid-19. Using a qualitative method (group and individual interviews), we analyse the relationship between macro (social support system) and micro social dimensions of security, as well as the linkages between micro-level dimensions of security. In describing the latter dimensions, we will focus on the labour market situation of families with young children, and hence on their financial situation, their mental health situation and their educational situation. The description of each theme also includes an assessment of the situation of the families concerned and the professionals who help them, based on an analysis of the interviews conducted with them. In the first phase of the study, social problems were identified on the basis of interviews with experts. In the second phase, individual interviews were conducted with the people concerned, the disadvantaged. 11 interviews were conducted with experts: 5 individual and 6 group interviews. In the second phase, 50 disadvantaged people were interviewed individually.

In general, it can be concluded that the daily life of people living in disadvantaged areas has been further affected by the pandemic. The labour market situation has changed and, in this context, the financial situation of the interviewees has further deteriorated. Single-parent families were particularly affected by these problems. The transition to online education has created difficulties for families, children, and teachers and additional tasks for social workers. In many places, the lack of accessible services, the low availability of equipment and low level of digital literacy have prevented distance learning from taking place, and the negative consequences for the population under study can only be predicted. The epidemic has affected the population not only financially but also mentally. The reduction in social life has led to an increase in domestic violence. In some areas, the number of births in disadvantaged families has increased, especially among minors. In fact, the epidemic has brought to the surface the problems that disadvantaged people face on a daily basis: unemployment and deprivation, compounded by educational underachievement. The workload of those working in the social field has also become more visible: a shortage of staff and a lack of resources. At the same time, the enormous potential and flexibility of the current human resources have been revealed.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Viktor Jurkovich
,
Barbara Bognár
,
Krisztián Balogh
,
Mária Kovács-Weber
,
Kinga Fornyos
,
Rubina Tünde Szabó
,
Péter Kovács
,
László Könyves
, and
Miklós Mézes

Milk yield, milk ingredients, health and other, production-related parameters of subclinically infected, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP-) shedding (positive faecal PCR, n = 20) and non-shedding (negative faecal PCR, n = 10) dairy cows were compared in the period from 10 days prepartum to 120 days postpartum. Body condition, rumen fill and faeces scores were lower in the MAP-shedding cows. There was no significant difference in plasma or urine metabolic parameters between the groups. Milk yield and lactose content tended to be lower (P = 0.074 and 0.077, respectively), somatic cell count tended to be higher (P = 0.097), while milk fat content was significantly higher (P = 0.006) in MAP-shedding cows than in the controls. Milk protein content did not differ between the groups. All other health and production parameters [number of reproductive tract treatments, number of udder treatments, number of artificial inseminations (AIs), calving interval, and service period] were significantly better in the control group. It is concluded that MAP infection, even in a subclinical form, has a significant impact on some production and health parameters of dairy cows.

Open access
Biologia Futura
Authors:
Rubina Tu¨nde Szabó
,
Mária Kovács-Weber
,
Márta Erdélyi
,
Krisztián Balogh
,
Natasa Fazekas
,
Ákos Horváth
,
Miklós Mézes
, and
Balázs Kovács

Background and aims

The aim of this study was to verify that the comet assay can be used to investigate the DNA damaging effects of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in the liver of broiler chickens. The comet assay is a favorable genotoxic analysis because it is cheap, simple, and can be used in many organisms and different tissues.

Materials and methods

Male broiler chickens were fed with T-2/HT-2 toxins-contaminated diet for 14 days. The comet assay was successfully adapted to chicken liver cells, and the DNA damage was determined by a decrease in the comet parameter (DNA % in the tail) in the experimental groups.

Results

The method of evaluation was found to be critical because DNA damage could not be detected exactly using the CometScore software, due to inaccurate separation of head and comet. However, this problem can be solved by visual evaluation.

Conclusion

In the case of the visual evaluation, each toxin-treated group differed significantly from the control group, indicating that the assay can be useful for the assessment of primary DNA damage caused by T-2/HT-2 toxins.

Open access