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Chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) are the most common forms of kidney disease all around the world. The incidence of CKD is rising, which is mainly driven by population aging as well as by a global rise in hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic risk factors, particularly obesity and type-2 diabetes. The high mortality, morbidity of CKD, and the health care costs of the renal replacement therapy have led investigators to seek recent and potentially modifiable risk factors such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and the most common cause of chronic liver disease. It incorporates a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. On the basis of recent publications, the prevalence of CKD is significantly increased among patients with NAFLD, and the prevalence of NAFLD is also higher in CKD patients than in patients without NAFLD. These findings suggest that patients with NAFLD should be screened for CKD and patients with CKD and metabolic syndrome should be screened for NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD and CKD should be treated and followed up by a multidisciplinary team that involves specialists in hepatology, nephrology, diabetes, and cardiology.

Open access

Isoperla nagyi sp. n. is described on the basis of morphology of male and female adults and eggs. The new species is classified as an isolated species within the West Palaearctic Isoperla. It was found in the lower elevations of the Ţarcu Mts that is forming a high range of the westernmost Southern Carpathians. Further contributions are given on the stonefly fauna of the Ţarcu Mts, including notes on the Romanian distribution of Brachyptera bulgarica Raušer, and the taxonomy and distribution of Isoperla pusilla (Klapálek).

Open access
Community Ecology
Authors:
T. Standovár
,
F. Szmorad
,
B. Kovács
,
K. Kelemen
,
M. Plattner
,
T. Roth
, and
Zs. Pataki

A new forest state assessment methodology to complement existing conservation and forestry data has been developed. The aim is to provide tools for strategic planning including spatial distribution of conservation priorities. The method is point-based using a dense systematic sampling grid and provides more detailed information than vegetation maps or forest subcompartment descriptions, but requires less effort than forest inventories. Indicators include canopy composition and structure, deadwood, herbs, microhabitats, disturbances, shrubs and regeneration. The results can inform managers about the structural and compositional diversity of forest stands in the form of thematic maps and can provide the basis for analysis of habitat suitability for forest-dwelling organisms. A smartphone application has been developed to enable electronic data collection. PostGIS and Python scripts were used in the data flow. In this paper, we outline the development of the assessment protocol, and present the sampling design and the variables recorded. The main advantages of the survey methodology are also shown by case-studies based on data collected during the first field season in 2014. The protocol has been designed for low mountain forests in Hungary, but it can be modified to fit other forest types.

Open access

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present cross-sectional study is to examine the degree of degenerative patho-anatomical changes in the thoracic vertebrae in asymptomatic adult patients.

Materials and Methods

A total of 150 adult patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) because of various health conditions (e.g., tumour risk). The images were revised with post-processing procedures to detect bony changes in the thoracic vertebrae. Three types of degenerations (osteophytes, arthrosis, and irregular endplates) were examined and graded using appropriate grading systems. Correlational investigations were carried out in relation to age, BMI, and degenerations. Moreover, to examine the value of the degenerations the frequencies of the grading categories were assessed in each segment.

Results

The total number of the patients included was 41, who had no trunk symptoms. We found no convincing correlations in terms of age, BMI, and degenerations, however, age and facet joint arthrosis showed a tentative association. The degree of the degenerations was the largest in the Th7-8, Th8-9, Th9-10 segments for osteophytes, in the Th4-5, Th5-6 for arthrosis, and in the Th8-9, Th9-10 for irregular endplates.

Conclusions

This study found that there are several progressive degenerative changes in the thoracic spine without any clinical symptoms. Accordingly, it can be advised that clinicians should avoid labelling the disorders and planning their treatment based on the results of diagnostic imaging only.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Zs. Bodor
,
Cs. Benedek
,
T. Kaszab
,
J.-L. Zinia Zaukuu
,
I. Kertész
, and
Z. Kovacs

Honey is produced by honeybees from nectar, sap of plant parts, or the juicy material secreted by sucking insects living on trees. It is rich in nutritionally useful components, the occurrence of which highly depends on the botanical and geographical origin of honey. Our goal is to develop a new, rapid, and accurate combination of analytical methods for identification of botanical and geographical origin.

Physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, moisture, and ash content), colour (L*a*b*), and antioxidant properties were determined in addition to correlative techniques, such as electronic tongue and near infrared spectroscopy. For the statistical evaluation ANOVA, principal component analysis, and linear discriminant analysis were applied.

Results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in physicochemical properties, colour, and antioxidant capacity according to the botanical origin of honeys. Electronic tongue (ET) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) techniques were useful in the identification of the botanical and geographical origin, showing generally good accuracy.

The physicochemical parameters are important and can serve as reference methods, completing NIR and ET as target techniques, which are promising, but need further improvement for the determination of honey origin.

Open access

A tüszőfolyadék biomarkereinek vizsgálata in vitro fertilizációs kezelésben részesült betegekben

Investigations of follicular fluid biomarkers in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
József Bódis
,
Endre Sulyok
,
Ákos Várnagy
,
Miklós Koppán
, and
Gábor Kovács L.

Összefoglaló. A szerzők ismertetik vizsgálataik eredményeit, melyeket a közelmúltban az in vitro fertilizációs kezelésben részesülő betegeikben a tüszőfolyadék biomarkereinek analízisével értek el. A vizsgálatok célja annak feltárása volt, hogy az in vitro fertilizációs eljárás során a petesejtek aspirációjakor nyert tüszőfolyadék-biomarkerek lokális/ovarialis vagy szisztémás eredetűek, és milyen összefüggést mutatnak az in vitro fertilizáció eredményességét jelző paraméterekkel. Megerősítettük, hogy az autokrin/parakrin szerotoninrendszer már a fejlődés legkorábbi időszakában is működőképes, és mind az anyai szérum, mind a tüszőfolyadék szerotoninszintje szignifikáns pozitív összefüggést mutatott az érett petesejtek számával és a klinikai terhességgel (β = 0,447, p = 0,015, illetve β = 0,443, p = 0,016). Az agyi eredetű neurotrofikus faktor (BDNF) esetében ilyen kapcsolat nem volt igazolható, de a tüszőfolyadék BDNF- és szerotoninszintjei közötti pozitív korreláció (r = 0,377, p = 0,040) azt mutatja, hogy a két neurohormon ’feed-forward’ (előrecsatoló ) szabályozása ovarialis szinten is működik. A hypothalamicus kisspeptin esetében csupán a posztstimulációs anyai szérumhormonszint befolyásolta az érett petesejtek számát (β = 0,398, p = 0,029). A triptofán–kinurenin–szerotonin rendszer elemzése azt mutatta, hogy kedvezőbb in vitro fertilizációs kimenetel várható, ha a szerotonin–kinurenin egyensúly a szerotonin javára tolódik el. Az oxidatívstressz-markerek közül vizsgálták a DNS-károsodás biomarkerét, a 8-hidroxi-2’-deoxiguanozin és a totális antioxidáns-kapacitás szérum- és tüszőfolyadékszintjeit, és megállapították, hogy mindkét marker kedvezőtlenül befolyásolja az életképes embriók számát (r = 0,302, p = 0,027 és r = 0,268, p = 0,039). A protektív hatású szirtuinok – nikotinamid-adenin-dinukleotid-függő hiszton-deacetiláz fehérjék – közül a vizsgált szirtuin-1 és szirtuin-6 a szérumszintektől függetlenül kimutatható a tüszőfolyadékban. Szignifikáns pozitív korreláció van a tüszőfolyadék-szirtuin-6 és az érettpetesejt-szám (F = 6,609, p = 0,016), valamint a szérum-szirtuin-1 (F = 10,008, p = 0,005) és a szérum-szirtuin-6 (F = 5,268, p = 0,031) és a klinikai terhesség gyakorisága között. Eredményeink alapján megállapítható, hogy a tüszőfolyadék biomarkereinek vizsgálata javíthatja az in vitro fertilizáció kimenetelének megítélését. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(14): 523–529.

Summary. This article outlines the result of recent studies on several follicular fluid biomarkers in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. The aim of these studies was to investigate whether 1) the follicular fluid biomarkers in question are produced locally by the ovaries or they originate from the circulating plasma, 2) and to establish their association with parameters of in vitro fertilization outcome. It was confirmed that the autocrine/paracrine serotonin system is functional already at the earliest stage of development and both maternal serum and follicular fluid serotonin levels were positively related to the number of mature oocytes (β = 0.447, p = 0.015 and β = 0.443, p = 0.016, respectively) and clinical pregnancy (β = 1.028, p = 0.047). Such associations for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could not be found, but BDNF and serotonin in the follicular fluid were closely related (r = 0.377, p<0.040) suggesting that the feed-forward regulation of these neurohormones is activated at ovarian level. The hypothalamic kisspeptin in the post-stimulation maternal serum also increased the number of mature oocytes (β = 0.398, p = 0.029). Analysis of the tryptophan–kynurenine–serotonin system showed a more favourable in vitro fertilization outcome when the serotonin–kynurenine balance was shifted and serotonin predominated over kynurenine. The oxidative stress markers, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, an indicator of DNA damage and the total antioxidant capacity in follicular fluid and maternal serum had negative impact on the number of viable embryos (r = 0.302, p = 0.027 and r = 0.268, p = 0.039), respectively. The protective sirtuins – the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent histone deacetylase proteins – could be detected in follicular fluid irrespective of their maternal serum levels. Significant positive relationship was demonstrated between follicular fluid sirtuin 6 and mature oocytes (F = 6.609, p = 0.016) as well as between serum sirtuin 1 (F = 10.008, p = 0.005) and serum sirtuin 6 (F = 5.268, p = 0.031) and the rate of clinical pregnancy, respectively. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that measuring several follicular fluid biomarkers may improve the prediction of the outcome of in vitro fertilization. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(14): 523–529.

Open access

Inzulinrezisztencia és következményei gyermek- és serdülőkorban

Insulin resistance and its effects in children and adolescents

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Borbála Tobisch
,
László Blatniczky
,
Ingrid Schusterova
,
Levente Kovács
, and
László Barkai

Összefoglaló. Számos adat igazolja, hogy az inzulinrezisztencia gyakori jelenség gyermek- és serdülőkorban, és szoros kapcsolatban áll a cardiovascularis kockázat növekedésével, ami miatt a kérdéskörre az életnek ebben a korai szakaszában is kiemelt figyelmet kell fordítani. Ma már egyre több ismerettel rendelkezünk a kockázati tényezőket illetően, nincs azonban egységes álláspont az inzulinrezisztencia meghatározására vonatkozóan a klinikai gyakorlatban, és nem rendelkezünk megfelelő laboratóriumi markerekkel, melyek segítségével a veszélyeztetetteket széles körben eredményesen lehetne azonosítani. Mindezek alapján a laboratóriumi módszerrel történő szűrés ebben az életkorban nem indokolt, azonban a társuló és következményes kórállapotok klinikai alapon történő felismerésére törekedni kell. A cardiovascularis kockázat megelőzésére irányuló életmódbeli prevenció hatásos az inzulinrezisztencia csökkentésében, a gyakorlatban azonban kivitelezése és eredményessége korlátozott. A gyógyszeres intervenció jelenleg ebben az életkorban csak egyes szelektált esetekben kerülhet alkalmazásra. További klinikai kutatásokra van szükség az inzulinrezisztencia mérése, az életmódbeli és gyógyszeres intervenciós lehetőségek területén annak érdekében, hogy sikeres stratégiák legyenek kialakíthatók a cardiovascularis halálozás megelőzése, csökkentése érdekében. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(11): 403–412.

Summary. Numerous data confirm that insulin resistance is a common phenomenon in children, and closely links to an increase in cardiovascular risk, therefore it is urgent to pay attention to this from early childhood. Today, we have more and more knowledge about risk factors, but there is no common position on the definition of insulin resistance in clinical practice and we do not have adequate laboratory markers to identify those at risk effectively. Based on all these factors, laboratory screening is not justified at this age, however, efforts should be made to recognize associated and consequent conditions on a clinical basis. Lifestyle prevention to prevent cardiovascular risk is effective in reducing insulin resistance, but in practice its implementation and effectiveness are limited. At present, pharmacological intervention can only be used in certain selected cases with this age group. Further clinical research is needed to measure insulin resistance, lifestyle and drug intervention options in order to develop successful strategies to prevent and reduce cardiovascular death. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(11): 403–412.

Open access
Physiology International
Authors:
Zs. Sári
,
T. Kovács
,
T. Csonka
,
M. Török
,
É. Sebő
,
J. Toth
,
D. Tóth
,
E. Mikó
,
B. Kiss
,
D. Szeőcs
,
K. Uray
,
Zs. Karányi
,
I. Kovács
,
G. Méhes
,
P. Árkosy
, and
P. Bai

Abstract

Breast cancer is characterized by oncobiosis, the abnormal composition of the microbiome in neoplastic diseases. The biosynthetic capacity of the oncobiotic flora in breast cancer is suppressed, as suggested by metagenomic studies. The microbiome synthesizes a set of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites that are downregulated in breast cancer, including cadaverine, a microbiome metabolite with cytostatic properties. We set out to assess how the protein expression of constitutive lysine decarboxylase (LdcC), a key enzyme for cadaverine production, changes in the feces of human breast cancer patients (n = 35). We found that the fecal expression of Escherichia coli LdcC is downregulated in lobular cases as compared to invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) cases. Lobular breast carcinoma is characterized by low or absent expression of E-cadherin. Fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression is downregulated in E-cadherin negative breast cancer cases as compared to positive ones. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of LdcC expression in lobular and NST cases revealed that fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression might have predictive values. These data suggest that the oncobiotic transformation of the microbiome indeed leads to the downregulation of the production of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites. In E-cadherin negative lobular carcinoma that has a higher potential for metastasis formation, the protein levels of enzymes producing antimetastatic metabolites are downregulated. This finding represents a new route that renders lobular cases permissive for metastasis formation. Furthermore, our findings underline the role of oncobiosis in regulating metastasis formation in breast cancer.

Open access