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- Author or Editor: Tivadar M Tóth x
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The Algyő High (AH) is an elevated crystalline block in southeastern Hungary covered by thick Neogene sediments. Although productive hydrocarbon reservoirs are found in these Neogene sequences, numerous fractured reservoirs also occur in the pre-Neogene basement of the Pannonian Basin. Based on these analogies, the rock body of the AH might also play a key role in fluid storage and migration; however, its structure and therefore the reservoir potential is little known. Based on a comprehensive petrologic study in conjunction with analysis of the spatial position of the major lithologies, the AH is considered to have been assembled from blocks with different petrographic features and metamorphic history. The most common lithologies of garnet-kyanite gneiss and mica schist associated with garnetiferous amphibolite are dominant in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the AH. The first regional amphibolite facies metamorphism of the gneiss and mica schist was overprinted by a contact metamorphic (metasomatic) event during decompression in the stability field of kyanite. Garnet-bearing amphibolite experienced amphibolite facies peak conditions comparable with the host gneiss. Regarding the similarities in petrologic features, the northwestern and southeastern parts of the area represent disaggregated blocks of the same rock body. The central part of the AH area is characterized by an epidote gneiss-dominated block metamorphosed along with a greenschist-facies retrograde pathway as well as a chlorite schist-dominated block formed by greenschist-facies progressive metamorphism. The independent evolution of these two blocks is further confirmed by the presence of a propylitic overprint in the chlorite schists. The different metamorphic blocks of the northwestern, southeastern and central parts of the AH probably became juxtaposed along post-metamorphic normal faults developed due to extensional processes. The supposed brittle structural boundaries between the blocks could have provided hydrocarbon migration pathways from the adjacent over-pressured sub-basins, or could even represent suitable reservoirs.
The pre-Cenozoic basement of central Hungary is partly made up of different types of carbonate rocks. These carbonates are often good hydrocarbon reservoirs, and hydrocarbon production is significant in this region in Hungary. Nonetheless, the petrography of the reservoir rocks has not yet been investigated in detail. In this study, the results of the investigations of the lithology of a carbonate hydrocarbon reservoir from central Hungary (Gomba Field) are presented. Based on this work, two types of pure limestone, a dolomitic limestone and a polymictic breccia, could be distinguished in the study area. The limestone types are similar to the Kisfennsík Limestone Member and the Berva Limestone of the Bükk Mountains, but they contain significant amounts of framboidal pyrite and dead oil as vein fillings. The breccia is predominantly composed of angular carbonate clasts and minor metamorphic and sedimentary rock fragments in a chaotic pattern. The breccia has some grains that may be speleothems (e.g., stalactite or stalagmite) based on their structure and isotopic compositions. The fabric of the breccia suggests that it may have been formed by fluid-related processes. Cross-cutting relationships of the veins and petrography of the vein fillings suggest that there are four different fracture generations and two different hydrocarbon migration phases to be distinguished. The composition of the hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions related to the second migration event is similar to the crude oil currently produced from the Gomba Field. During the Eocene, the Triassic basement was buried and brecciated. Subsequently, a primary hydrocarbon migration can be assumed, but the hydrocarbons became overmature, apparently due to the high temperatures of the burial environment. Finally, an uplift phase began and the youngest fracture generation formed, which serves as a primary pathway for the more recent hydrocarbon migration.
The Mecsekalja Zone is a strike-slip fault zone that plays an essential role in the structural framework of South Transdanubia. The metamorphic and deformation history of the crystalline basement of the Mecsekalja Zone has been determined thus far based exclusively on a few surface outcrops and near-surface samples. The Szentlőrinc-1 (Sztl-1) well penetrated the shear zone at a depth of approximately 2 km and brought drilling chips from a 220-m-long section of the basement to the surface. The aim of this study is to reconstruct the metamorphic and deformation history of the Mecsekalja Zone along the Sztl-1 well using these tiny samples. These drilling chips consist of single mineral and rock pieces that are dominated by quartz grains. This study concentrates on the detailed analysis of quartz grains utilizing the physical conditions of metamorphic evolution as well as ductile and brittle deformation to determine the chemical composition and rheology of quartz. The evolution of the studied area can be determined by evaluating analytical data measured by Raman spectroscopy, LA-ICP-MS, and FTIR spectroscopy. These data suggest that the maximum temperature of the early regional metamorphism was 500–575 °C, the temperature of the subsequent ductile deformation was below 500 °C including recrystallization occurred between 400 and 475 °C. During the structural evolution of the study area, two independent, single deformation events occurred. The earlier ductile deformation event was followed by a brittle event through the reactivation of the former ductile shear zone. Our model is in accordance with previous results concerning the evolution of the Mecsekalja Zone, thus, the shear zone, with an identical evolution, can be extended toward the southwest at least to the Sztl-1 well.
Our research team has developed a new well completion and rework technology involving lasers. The system is made up of a high-power laser generator and a custom-designed directional laser drilling head. The laser head is attached to a coiled tubing unit to maximize production and to carry out special downhole tasks. In this phase of the development effort, laser technology is particularly well suited to cost-efficiently drill short laterals from existing wells in a single work phase, drilling through the casing and cement as well as the formation. The technology, which is an extended perforation solution, enables a more intensive interaction with the downhole environment and supports cutting edge subsurface engineering scenarios such as barite removal. Laser-induced heat treatment appears to be a suitable alternative to effectively remove the almost immovable deposits and scales from thermal water-well pipes.