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In this paper, the wind energy resource in China’s oilfields is analyzed, the difference between China’s energy consumption structure and that of the world in average is analyzed as well, and the application prospect of wind heating technology in China’s oilfields is discussed as an example to reform China’s energy consumption structure. It shows that it is possible to use wind energy as an appropriate heat resource or supplementary heat source in some oilfields to supply heat energy for oil heating and living, more room to improve the energy resource utilization in various fields in China remain. It is a benefit to both oilfield and society to improve energy saving and environments.

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Summary

A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of xanthotoxol (1), xanthotoxin (2), isoimpinellin (3), bergapten (4), oxypeucedanin (5), imperatorin (6), cnidilin (7), and isoimperatorin (8) in rat bile and urine using pimpinellin as an internal standard (IS). An Agilent 1200 liquid chromatography system (Agilent Technologies, USA) equipped with a quaternary pump, an autosampler, and a column compartment was used for all analyses. Chromatographic separations were performed on a Sapphire C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), and the column temperature was maintained at 30°C; the sample injection volume was 10 μL. The specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect, and several stabilities were validated for all analytes in the rat bile and urine samples. The method was successfully applied in monitoring the concentrations of eight coumarins in rat bile and urine after a single oral administration of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae extract with a dosage of 8.0 mL/kg. In the bile samples, the eight coumarins excreted completely in twenty-four hours. The average percentages of coumarins (1–8) excreted were 0.045%, 0.019%, 0.177%, 0.105%, 0.337%, 0.023%, 0.024%, 0.021%. In the urine samples, the eight coumarins excreted completely in seventy-two hours. The average percentages of coumarins (1–8) excreted were 1.78%, 0.095%, 0.130%, 0.292%, 0.082%, 0.008%, 0.005%, 0.004%. The method is robust and specific and it can successfully complete the requirements of the excretion study of the eight coumarins in Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.

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Seven compounds, including two flavanones, dihydrokaempferol (1) and naringenin (2), and five terpenoids, boscartol A (3), 3,7-dioxo-tirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (4), 3α-acetoxyl-7-oxo-tirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (5), 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (6), and acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid (7), have been purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) from olibanum. For the separation, from 250 mg of the crude extract, 3.1 mg of 1 (95.2% purity), 2.7 mg of 2 (96.1% purity), 9.1 mg of 3 (96.7% purity), 4.5 mg of 4 (95.3% purity), 5.4 mg of 5 (96.3% purity), 48.1 mg of 6 (96.8% purity), and 45.5 mg of 7 (98.1% purity) were obtained by HSCCC with petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:0.8:1.1:0.6, v/v). The structures of these seven compounds were elucidated by a combination of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) and extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic.

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Chestnut exhibits anti-inflammatory, styptic, anti-diarrhea, and analgestic effects as a traditional Chinese medicine. There is increasing evidence that shows that the consumption of chestnuts has become more important in human nutrition due to the health benefits provided by the antioxidants. The phenolic compounds are responsible for major bioactivities, such as anti-tumor and anti-oxidation. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode array detection (DAD) was established for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds (gallic acid, GA; protocatechuic acid, PR; catechin, CA; epicatechin, EP; quercetin, QU; kaempferol, KA) in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima blume) kernel. The sample followed by separation on Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, id., 5 μm) with gradient elution of methanol-1.0% acetate acid solution as a mobile phase, at a temperature of 30°C, under the ratio of 1.2 mL min−1, with 5 μL injection volume, and multi-wavelength synthesis was used with DAD. The correlation coefficients were larger than 0.999, the recoveries were 97.58% for GA, 100.41% for PA, 96.23% for CA, 101.38% for QU, 99.15% for EP, and 98.60% for KA, relative standard deviation (RSD) were 1.04% for GA, 1.21% for PA, 1.09% for CA, 1.19% for QU, 1.06% for EP, and 1.20% for KA. This method was applied for the determination of phenolics in chestnut kernel and was found to be fast, sensitive, and suitable.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, S.-O. Oh, T. O. Kondratiuk, I. Yu. Parnikoza, and J.-S. Hur

Fourteen species new for science are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Six species of them are from South Korea, i.e. Bryostigma huriellae S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca ulleungensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Enterographa dokdoensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Neobrownliella salyangensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Rufoplaca aesan- ensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Squamulea coreana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, and seven species are from Chile: Caloplaca nothocitrina S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca nothoholocarpa S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca patagoniensis S. Y. Kondr., S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur, Follmannia suborthoclada S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, ‘Lecidea’buellielloides S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Mass- jukiella rusavskioides S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Rehmanniella poeltiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, as well as one species, i.e. Pyrenodesmia vernadskiensis S. Y. Kondr., T. O. Kondratiuk et I. Yu. Parnikoza, similar to Antarctic endemic species Huea coralligera, is from Argentine Islands, Western Antarctic Peninsula. The member of the genus Pyrenodesmia A. Massal. is for the first time confirmed by molecular data from the Antarctic.

Eighteen new combinations, i.e. Massjukiella impolita (for Caloplaca impolita Arup), Massjukiella pollinarioides (for Xanthoria pollinarioides L. Lindblom et D. M. Wright), Massjukiella stellata (for Caloplaca stellata Wetmore et Karnefelt), Massjukiella tenax (for Xanthoria tenax L. Lindblom), and Massjukiella tenuiloba (for Xanthoria tenuiloba L. Lindblom), Pyrenodesmia albopruinosa (for Biatorina albopruinosa Arnold), Pyrenodesmia ceracea (for Caloplaca ceracea J. R. Laundon), Pyrenodesmia cretensis (for Blastenia cretensis Zahlbr.), Pyrenodesmia erythrocarpa (for Patellaria erythrocarpa Pers.), Pyrenodesmia haematites (for Lecanora haematitesChaub. ex St.-Amans), Pyrenodesmia percrocata (for Blastenia percrocata Arnold), Pyrenodesmia soralifera (for Caloplaca soralifera Vondrak et Hrouzek), Pyrenodesmia transcaspica (for Lecanora transcaspica Nyl.), Pyrenodesmia viridirufa (for Lecidea viridirufa Ach.), Pyrenodesmia xerica (for Caloplaca xerica Poelt et Vezda), as well as Rehmanniella leucoxantha (for Amphilo-ma leucoxanthum Mull. Arg.), Rehmanniella syvashica (for Caloplaca syvashica Khodos., Vond- rak et Soun), and Rehmanniella subgyalectoides (for Caloplaca subgyalectoides S. Y. Kondr. et Karnefelt) are proposed.

Buelliella inops and Zwackhiomyces aff. berengerianus are for the first time recorded from South America as well as from Follmannia orthoclada (as lichenicolous fungi). Caloplaca poliotera, Rinodina convexula and Rinodina kozukensis are new to the Republic of Korea, and new localities as well as illustrations for the further 13 new and rare lichen species recently described from Eastern Asia are provided too.

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