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Background and Aims

Excessive usage of smartphones may induce social problems, such as depression and impairment of social and emotional functioning. Moreover, its usage can impede physical activity, but the relationship between smartphone addiction and physical activity is obscure. Therefore, we examined the relationship and the impact of excessive smartphone use on physical activity.

Methods

This study collected data through the structured questionnaire consisting of general characteristics, the number and hours of smartphone usage, and the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) from 110 Chinese international students in Korea. The body composition and physical activity, such as the total daily number of steps and consumed calories, were measured.

Results

In this study, high-risk smartphone users showed less physical activity, such as the total number of steps taken and the average consumed calories per day. Moreover, their body composition, such as muscle mass and fat mass, was significantly different. Among these factors, the hours of smartphone use revealed the proportional relationship with smartphone addiction (β = 0.209, p = 0.026), while the average number of walking steps per day showed a significant reverse proportional tendency in participants with smartphone addiction (β = –0.883, p < 0.001).

Conclusions

Participants with smartphone addiction were less likely to walk for each day. Namely, smartphone addiction may negatively influence physical health by reducing the amount of physical activity, such as walking, resulting in an increase of fat mass and a decrease of muscle mass associated with adverse health consequences.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Seung-Yup Lee, Donghwan Lee, Cho Rong Nam, Da Yea Kim, Sera Park, Jun-Gun Kwon, Yong-Sil Kweon, Youngjo Lee, Dai Jin Kim, and Jung-Seok Choi

Background and objectives

The ubiquitous Internet connections by smartphones weakened the traditional boundaries between computers and mobile phones. We sought to explore whether smartphone-related problems differ from those of computer use according to gender using latent class analysis (LCA).

Methods

After informed consents, 555 Korean middle-school students completed surveys on gaming, Internet use, and smartphone usage patterns. They also completed various psychosocial instruments. LCA was performed for the whole group and by gender. In addition to ANOVA and χ2 tests, post-hoc tests were conducted to examine differences among the LCA subgroups.

Results

In the whole group (n = 555), four subtypes were identified: dual-problem users (49.5%), problematic Internet users (7.7%), problematic smartphone users (32.1%), and “healthy” users (10.6%). Dual-problem users scored highest for addictive behaviors and other psychopathologies. The gender-stratified LCA revealed three subtypes for each gender. With dual-problem and healthy subgroup as common, problematic Internet subgroup was classified in the males, whereas problematic smartphone subgroup was classified in the females in the gender-stratified LCA. Thus, distinct patterns were observed according to gender with higher proportion of dual-problem present in males. While gaming was associated with problematic Internet use in males, aggression and impulsivity demonstrated associations with problematic smartphone use in females.

Conclusions

An increase in the number of digital media-related problems was associated with worse outcomes in various psychosocial scales. Gaming may play a crucial role in males solely displaying Internet-related problems. The heightened impulsivity and aggression seen in our female problematic smartphone users requires further research.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Sung Jae Kim, Van Giap Nguyen, Cheong Ung Kim, Bong Kyun Park, Thi-My Le Huynh, Sook Shin, Woo Kyung Jung, Yong Ho Park, and Hee Chun Chung

Abstract

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is one of the major pathogens causing acute enteritis, which is characterised by vomiting and watery diarrhoea and commonly leads to high rates of mortality and morbidity in suckling piglets. Chitosan has been regarded as a promising natural disinfectant. In this study, the disinfectant effect and mammalian-cell toxicity of chitosan were evaluated against PEDV using Vero cells. A 0.01% solution of chitosan was determined to be an effective disinfectant. In addition, no evidence of toxicity was observed during the cell toxicity test; on the contrary, chitosan promoted cell proliferation. In conclusion, chitosan is a promising candidate for an effective and safe disinfectant against PEDV as well as other coronaviruses.

Open access