Authors:Huitao Liu, Yingying Wen, Feng Luan, and Yuan Gao
A simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoretic method is proposed for the analysis of antioxidants and preservatives in food. The important factors affecting separation and detection, for example pH, and concentration of the buffer electrolyte and organic modifier, were investigated in detail. Separation of five antioxidants (propyl gallate, gallic acid isoamyl ester, gallic acid n-octyl ester, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, and trihydroxybutyrophenone) and one preservative (benzoic acid) was achieved in a 50.5 cm (effective length) × 75 μm i.d fused-silica capillary, with 15 mmol L–1 borate buffer, pH 9.18, containing 25% (v/v) acetonitrile as separation buffer. UV detection was at 219 nm and the applied potential was 25 kV. Regression analysis revealed linear relationships between peak area and amount of each additive from 10 to 1000 μg mL–1 (R = 0.9992–1.0000). RSD of retention time and peak area were 0.44–0.74% and 1.25–4.31%, respectively. The method was successfully used for simultaneous analysis of the six compounds in food with the recoveries from 89.3 to 115.8%.
Authors:Xiaobin Li, Fangfang Gao, Huitao Liu, and Yuan Gao
A simple capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for the determination of hexachlorophene (HCP) in cosmetics. Separation conditions were obtained in 20 mM Na2B4O7, 10% MeOH (pH 9.20), with 25 kV applied voltage and UV detection at 208 nm. Under the selected conditions, electrophoretic analysis was completed in about 4 min, with limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 µg·mL−1 for HCP. The method was successfully applied to determine HCP in three kinds of cosmetics with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 0.52–3.02% and recoveries from 90.0 to 96.4% for the spiked samples. The results indicated that the proposed method was reliable. Comparative experiments were also carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method described in National Standards of People's Republic of China. The validation results of the two methods are comparable, but the proposed CE method is simple, rapid, which makes separation and analyte quantification in shorter time with much less reagent consumption.
A sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) enrichment model was established for the determination of three chlorophenols (CPs) in cosmetics, namely, bithionol, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The optimum electrophoretic conditions were 20 mM NaH2PO4-80 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 30% (v/v) acetonitrile (pH 2.3). The optimum on-line concentration conditions were as follows: sample matrix, 100 mM NaH2PO4; pressure injection at 20.67 kPa (3 psi) for 25 s. The linear range of bithionol, PCP, and 2,4,6-TCP are 0.20–4.00 μg mL−1, 0.10–2.00 μg mL−1, and 0.05–2.00 μg mL−1 respectively, with correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9972. The limits of detection (LOD) based on three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 3) are in the range of 0.0061–0.024 μg mL−1. Recoveries for the three CPs in powder and lotion samples are between 79.7 and 110.2% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.38–5.54% and 92.2–121.3% with RSD of 0.72–6.09%, respectively. The proposed method can provide reference for the determination of trace CPs in different sample matrix.
Authors:Zhihan Zheng, Xiaobin Li, Huitao Liu, and Yuan Gao
This study establishes a method for rapid detection of clonidine and cyproheptadine in foods of animal origin. In order to obtain the best detection method, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), large volume sample stacking (LVSS), and sweeping-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) were used respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of clonidine and cyproheptadine by LVSS-CZE were 0.028 μg mL−1 and 0.034 μg mL−1, and those by sweeping-MEKC were 0.023 μg mL−1 and 0.031 μg mL−1, respectively. Compared with the CZE method, the two online pre-concentration technologies have greatly improved the detection sensitivity and achieved good enrichment results. However, compared with the sweeping-MEKC system, the LVSS system consumed a longer time and was greatly affected by the actual sample matrix. The sweeping-MEKC method was proved to be suitable for real sample analysis. Under the best sweeping-MEKC conditions, clonidine and cyproheptadine could be well separated within 8 min and good linear relationships in the range of 0.1–1.0 μg mL−1 (r2 > 0.99) were obtained. This method was successfully applied to the determination of clonidine and cyproheptadine in animal-derived foods with the recoveries of 82.3%–90.1% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3.11%. The sweeping-MEKC method is simple to operate and has great potential in the rapid detection of clonidine and cyproheptadine in animal-derived foods.
A sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) method was developed for the determination of 1,7-naphthalenediol, 2,3-naphthalenediol, 1,5-naphthalenediol and 2,7-naphthalenediol in cosmetics. Several parameters affecting sweeping-MEKC method were studied systematically and the separation conditions were optimized as 20 mM NaH2PO4–110 mM SDS and 40% (v/v) MeOH (pH 2.4), with −22 kV applied voltage and UV detection at 230 nm. The sample matrix is 60 mmol L−1 NaH2PO4 and sample introduction was performed at 3 psi for 6 s. Separation of the four naphthalenediols was completed in less than 17 min. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) are 0.0045∼0.0094 μg mL−1 and 0.015∼0.031 μg mL−1. Linear relationship (r2 > 0.999) is satisfactory at the range of 0.1–10 μg mL−1. The developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the four naphthalenediols in real cosmetic samples, with recoveries in foundation, sun cream and lotion in the range of 92.3%∼106.8% and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 4.15%. A HPLC method described in the National Standards of the People’s Republic of China was carried out for the comparison with the proposed method. The results showed that the proposed sweeping-MEKC method has the advantages of fast, low cost with comparative sensitivity.