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Abstract

Background and aims

Previous research has established risk factors for problematic smartphone use (PSU), but few studies to date have explored the structure of PSU symptoms. This study capitalizes on network analysis to identify the core symptoms of PSU in a large sample of students.

Methods

This research investigated 26,950 grade 4 students (male = 13,271) and 11,687 grade 8 students (male = 5,739) using the smartphone addiction proneness scale (SAPS). The collected data were analyzed using a network analysis method, which can provide centrality indexes to determine the core symptoms of PSU. The two networks from the different groups were compared using a permutation test.

Results

The results indicated that the core symptoms of students' problematic smartphone use were the loss of control and continued excessive use across the two samples.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings suggest that loss of control is a key feature of problematic smartphone use. The results also provide some evidence relevant to previous research from the perspective of network analysis and some suggestions for future treatment or prevention of students' problematic smartphone use.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

To understand the interaction between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and related influencing factors (individual variables, family environment, and school environment) and to determine the most influential factors affecting the use of smartphones by juveniles to implement effective interventions in the future.

Methods

A total of 3,442 children and adolescents (3,248 actual participants (males = 1,638, average age = 12.27 ± 2.36)) were included in the study. This study measured juveniles’ PSU and its influencing factors: individual variables (4 factors), family environments (13 factors), and school environments (5 factors). This study employed a network analysis approach for data assessment.

Results

This study found that there were several central influencing factors (such as self-control ability, loss of control, parent-child relationship, and peer attitudes towards smartphone use) and bridge factors (such as peer attitudes towards smartphone use, peer pressure for smartphone use, and fear of missing out).

Discussion and conclusions

Juveniles’ PSU included several core symptoms and critical influencing factors. Intervention based on these factors may be effective, timely, and inexpensive.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

To understand the interaction between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and related influencing factors (individual variables, family environment, and school environment) and to determine the most influential factors affecting the use of smartphones by juveniles to implement effective interventions in the future.

Methods

A total of 3,442 children and adolescents (3,248 actual participants (males = 1,638, average age = 12.27 ± 2.36)) were included in the study. This study measured juveniles’ PSU and its influencing factors: individual variables (4 factors), family environments (13 factors), and school environments (5 factors). This study employed a network analysis approach for data assessment.

Results

This study found that there were several central influencing factors (such as self-control ability, loss of control, parent-child relationship, and peer attitudes towards smartphone use) and bridge factors (such as peer attitudes towards smartphone use, peer pressure for smartphone use, and fear of missing out).

Discussion and conclusions

Juveniles’ PSU included several core symptoms and critical influencing factors. Intervention based on these factors may be effective, timely, and inexpensive.

Open access