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Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a severe and transmissible disease of snakes worldwide. Reptarenaviruses have been identified as the aetiological agents of BIBD. We determined the almost complete genome sequence of an arenavirus detected in a female red-tailed boa that had succumbed in a private collection in Hungary. We used a combination of next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing methods. Based on the analysis of the obtained sequence data, the virus, tentatively named Coldvalley virus, seemed to belong to the Reptarenavirus genus of the Arenaviridae family. This classification was confirmed by the genome structure (bisegmented single-stranded RNA) characteristic of the genera Mammarenavirus and Reptarenavirus. The pairwise comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as the topology of the maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees, suggested that the newly-characterised Coldvalley virus can be classified into the species Rotterdam reptarenavirus.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Orsolya Király
Mark D. Griffiths
Daniel L. King
Hae-Kook Lee
Seung-Yup Lee
Fanni Bányai
Ágnes Zsila
Zsofia K. Takacs
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Background and aims

Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming.


After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review.


Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically.

Discussion and conclusions

Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

Open access