influenced many people in multiple ways. Pandemic-related social, financial, health, occupational, and other stressors may impact people's motivations to engage in potentially addictivebehaviors, including on the internet ( Bonenberger, 2019 ). During stay
governing bodies, the World Health Organization and American Psychiatric Association, conceptualize central criteria of these disorders. Models of tension reduction or self-medication hypotheses posit that potentially addictivebehaviors that create a mood
Bandura’s social cognitive theory to explain addictivebehaviors ( Bandura, 1986 ; Lin, Ko, & Wu, 2008 ); in particular, positive outcome expectancies are commonly defined as beliefs perceived by an individual on the likelihood of a behavior leading to
active, contrary to other addictivebehaviours. This could suggest to patients that some aspects of ADHD symptomatology may be positive ( Sedgwick, Merwood, & Asherson, 2019 ). This comforting impression may act as a positive reinforcer of gaming and
higher levels of stress were associated with lower levels of parent-child positive communication ( Kim & Lee, 2015 ).
The I-PACE model explains that stress influences decisions about addictivebehavior as an emotional and cognitive response