Authors:Andreas Hahn, Rebecca Hinz, Thomas Meyer, Ulrike Loderstädt, Ottmar Herchenröder, Christian G. Meyer, Norbert Georg Schwarz, and Hagen Frickmann
: • prevalence and incidence of HIV among sexual partners, • preventive effects of precaution/protection measures, and • frequency of sexual contacts.
Based on the literature quoted above, the following assumptions apply. Recently infected individuals are
Authors:Seher Nancy Bakal, Stefan Bereswill, and Markus M. Heimesaat
The progressive rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains poses serious problems in the treatment of infectious diseases. While the number of newly developed antimicrobial compounds has greatly fallen, the resistance of pathogens against commonly prescribed drugs is further increasing. This rise in resistance illustrates the need for developing novel therapeutic and preventive antimicrobial options. The medicinal herb Nigella sativa and its derivatives constitute promising candidates. In a comprehensive literature survey (using the PubMed data base), we searched for publications on the antimicrobial effects of N. sativa particularly directed against MDR bacterial strains. In vitro studies published between 2000 and 2015 revealed that N. sativa exerted potent antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species including resistant strains. For instance, N. sativa inhibited the growth of bacteria causing significant gastrointestinal morbidity such as Salmonella, Helicobacter pylori, and Escherichia coli. However, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa displayed resistance against black cumin seed extracts. In conclusion, our literature survey revealed potent antimicrobial properties of N. sativa against MDR strains in vitro that should be further investigated in order to develop novel therapeutic perspectives for combating infectious diseases particularly caused by MDR strains.
A century ago, Alfred Nissle discovered that intentional intake of particular strains of Escherichia coli could treat patients suffering from infectious diseases. Since then, one of these strains became the most frequently used probiotic E. coli in research and was applied to a variety of human conditions. Here, properties of that E. coli Nissle 1917 strain are compared with other commercially available E. coli probiotic strains, with emphasis on their human applications. A literature search formed the basis of a summary of research findings reported for the probiotics Mutaflor, Symbioflor 2, and Colinfant. The closest relatives of the strains in these products are presented, and their genetic content, including the presence of virulence, genes is discussed. A similarity to pathogenic strains causing urinary tract infections is noticeable. Historic trends in research of probiotics treatment for particular human conditions are identified. The future of probiotic E. coli may lay in what Alfred Nissle originally discovered: to treat gastrointestinal infections, which nowadays are often caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
Multivariate analysis of variance, based on randomization (permutation) test, has become an important tool for ecological data analyses. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy and power of available methods is still lacking. This is a thorough examination of randomization tests for multivariate group mean differences. With simulated data, the accuracy and power of randomization tests were evaluated using different test statistics in one-factor multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The evaluations span a wide spectrum of data types, including specified and unspecified (field data) distributional properties, correlation structures, homogeneous to very heterogeneous variances, and balanced an unbalanced group sizes. The choice of test statistic strongly affected the results. Sums of squares between groups (Qb) computed on Euclidean distances (Qb-EUD) gave better accuracy. Qb on Bray-Curtis, Manhattan or Chord distances, the multiresponse permutation procedure (MRPP) and the sum of univariate ANOVA F produced severely inflated type I errors under increasing variance heterogeneity among groups, a common scenario in ecological data. Despite pervasive claims in the ecological literature, the evidence thus suggests caution when using test statistics other than Qb-EUD.
Literature Bozai , J. ( 1974 ): Újabb adatok Magyarország Tetranychoidea faunájához (Acari). (Neue Angaben zur Kenntnis der Tetranychoiden-Fauna Ungarns (Acari) .) Folia Entomol. Hung. , 27 , 5 – 7 . Canestrini , G. and Fanzago , F
Authors:G. Ripka, E. Kiss, J. Kontschán, A. Neményi, and Á. Szabó
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Authors:Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, Yazmin del Rosario Rico-Almochantaf, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Raquel Vaquera-Enriquez, Arturo Díaz-Herrera, Agar Ramos-Nevarez, Ada Agustina Sandoval-Carrillo, José Manuel Salas-Pacheco, Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido, Oliver Liesenfeld, and Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola
to Toxoplasma gondii in an adult immunocompetent patient: a case report and review of the literature . Infection 41 , 859 – 862 ( 2013 )
Authors:Edit Urbán, Márió Gajdács, and Attila Torkos
Rhinosinusitis Advisory Board) [ 1, 2 ]. Based on literature findings, chronic sinusitis is almost always accompanied by concurrent nasal airway inflammation, and is often preceded by symptoms of rhinitis; thus, the term chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has evolved
Authors:Alex M. Nasaré, Roberto C. Tedesco, Priscila C. Cristovam, Marcos A. Cenedese, Andrés J. Galisteo Jr., Heitor F. Andrade Jr., José Álvaro P. Gomes, Érik V. Guimarães, Helene S. Barbosa, and Luis G. Alonso
, Rizzo LV , Muccioli C , Silveira C , Claudio JR , Burnier MNJR Belfor R : Ocular toxoplasmosis –an update and review of the literature . Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 104 , 345 – 350 ( 2009 )