This study presents evidence concerning semantic representation in bilingual memory. A vast majority of the early research on this topic proposed that fluent bilinguals access semantic representations that are shared across their two languages. More recent research proves that the question is not as simple as that. Bilinguals can sometimes use shared semantic representations across their two languages, but the conditions under which they can do so are constrained by the nature of the material, by the form of the task, by the level of proficiency in the second language, and by the lexical-level connections between the two languages. The present study provides an analysis of some psycholinguistic tests carried out among bilingual and bicultural people within a new framework proposing that there are asymmetries in the strength of the connections between lexical representations in different languages and between lexical representations and concepts. The author examines bilingual and bicultural semantic representations and their linguistic realisations, and the switching attitudes of bilinguals through the analysis of three tests conducted among bilingual and bicultural subjects.
We follow Pollard (2007) in assuming that the mainstream Kripke/Montagueinspired possible-worlds semantics is “a framework known to have dubious foundations” (primarily because of the granularity problem), and “worlds are constructed from propositions […], and not the other way around”. We intend to work out this approach in a DRT-based framework, called ReALIS, in order to account for phenomena concerning referent accessibility, at the same time. We claim that our system offers a general solution to problems of intensional identity, and it is devoid of DRT’s “extra level” problem—by embedding discourse representations in the world model, not directly but as parts of the representations of interpreters’ minds, i.e., their (permanently changing) information states/“internal worlds”. Hence, there is simply no intensionality in ReALIS as interpreters’ “worldlets” (in description of their brains within the entire model of the universe) carry all kinds of information (BDI, guesswork, dream) typically “entrusted to” possible worlds.
In spite of their differences, Two-level Conceptual Semantics, Generative Lexicon Theory and Relevance Theory also have similarities with respect to treatment of the relation of word meanings and contexts. Therefore, the three theories can be considered as complementing each other in analysing word meanings in utterances. In the present paper I will outline a conception of lexical pragmatics which critically amalgamates the views of these theories and has more explanatory power than each theory does separately. Such a lexical pragmatic conception accepts lexical-semantic representations which can be radically underspecified and allow for other methods of meaning description than componential analysis. As words have underspecified meaning representations, they reach their full meanings in corresponding contexts (immediate or extended) through considerable pragmatic inference. The Cognitive Principle of Relevance regulates the way in which the utterance meaning is construed.
The words making up a speaker’s mental lexicon may be stored as abstract phonological representations or else they may be stored as detailed acoustic-phonetic representations. The speaker’s articulatory gestures intended to represent a word show relatively high variability in spontaneous speech. The aim of this paper is to explore the acoustic-phonetic patterns of the Hungarian word
‘then, at that time’. Ten speakers’ recorded spontaneous speech with a total duration of 255 minutes and containing 286 occurrences of akkor were submitted to analysis. Durational and frequency patterns were measured by means of the Praat software. The results obtained show higher variability both within and across speakers than it had been expected. Both the durations of the words and those of the speech sounds, as well as the vowel formants, turned out to significantly differ across speakers. In addition, the results showed considerable within-speaker variation as well. The correspondence between variability in the objective acoustic-phonetic data and the flexibility and adaptive nature of the mental representation of a word will be discussed.For the perception experiments, two speakers of the previous experiment were selected whose 48 words were then used as speech material. The listeners had to judge the quality of the words they heard using a five-point scale. The results confirmed that the listeners used diverse strategies and representations depending on the acoustic-phonetic parameters of the series of occurrences of
Authors:Emese Pálfi, Mária Ashaber, Cory Palmer, Robert M. Friedman, Anna W. Roe, and László Négyessy
Bevezetés: A szomatoszenzoros kérgi área 3b és 1 közti szoros
funkcionális kapcsolatot reciprok neuronalis összeköttetések biztosítják,
jelezve, hogy a tapintási észlelés meghatározó módon függ a két área
interakciójától. Célkitűzés: Jelen vizsgálat célja e
neuronkörök megismerése volt a distalis ujjbegy-reprezentáció szintjén.
Módszer: Az áreán belüli és áreák közötti összeköttetések
vizsgálatához fiziológiai térképezéssel kombinált pályajelölést alkalmaztunk
mókusmajmokban (Saimiri sciureus).Eredmények: A szerzők kimutatták, hogy a két área közötti
reciprok összeköttetések az azonos ujjbegy reprezentációját preferálják. Ezzel
szemben az áreán belüli kapcsolatok horizontális eloszlása igazolja a
fiziológiai megfigyeléseket, amelyek erős kapcsolatot mutattak a szomszédos
ujjbegyek reprezentációi között. Érdekes, hogy az injektált kérgi reprezentáció
lokális bemeneti területe, amely a két áreában különbözik, egyforma méretű
bőrfelületet reprezentál. Következtetések: Eredményeikből azt a
következtetést lehet levonni, hogy áreán belül a lokális, horizontális
kapcsolatok az ujjak közötti információ integrálásában, az áreák közötti,
ujjbegy-reprezentációra lokalizálódó kapcsolatok pedig a kézmozgás során a
stimulusok lokalizációjában játszhatnak szerepet. Orv. Hetil., 2016,
Among the many references to Byron in the Twice-Told Tales and Mosses from an Old Manse, the most elaborate and entertaining are found in “P.’s Correspondence,” first published in the Democratic Review, April 1845. References to Byron in “The Seven Vagabonds” (1833), “Passages from a Relinquished Work” (1834), “Sketches from Memory” (1835),
“A Virtuoso Collection” (1842), “The Procession of Life” (1843), “Earth’s Holocaust” (1844), contribute further to the critique
of Byron and provide a matrix for analyzing the Byronic elements in The Scarlet Letter (1850) and more especially in The Marble Faun (1860). This essay draws from the novels and tales, as well as the letters, in constructing a coherent account of Hawthorne’s
reception of Byron. Key elements in his reception were Byron’s struggle against his Calvinist background; his violation of
moral standards; his representations of forbidden love and the noble outlaw with a guilty past; his exile in Italy and his
conjuring of Italian intrigue. These are also key elements in Hawthorne’s own tales and novels, especially those written during
Hawthorne’s stay in Rome and Florence from 1857 to 1859.
This paper presents a methodology to aggregate multidimensional research output. Using a tailored version of the non-parametric
Data Envelopment Analysis model, we account for the large heterogeneity in research output and the individual researcher preferences
by endogenously weighting the various output dimensions. The approach offers three important advantages compared to the traditional
approaches: (1) flexibility in the aggregation of different research outputs into an overall evaluation score; (2) a reduction
of the impact of measurement errors and a-typical observations; and (3) a correction for the influences of a wide variety
of factors outside the evaluated researcher’s control. As a result, research evaluations are more effective representations
of actual research performance. The methodology is illustrated on a data set of all faculty members at a large polytechnic
university in Belgium. The sample includes questionnaire items on the motivation and perception of the researcher. This allows
us to explore whether motivation and background characteristics (such as age, gender, retention, etc.,) of the researchers
explain variations in measured research performance.
Authors:Andrew Watt, Deiniol Skillicorn, Jediah Clark, Rachel Evans, Paul Hewlett, and Nick Perham
Heterosexual men and women differ in their sensitivity to cues indicating material status. This dissociation has been explained by appealing to sexual selection processes that encourage women to evaluate men on the basis of their material status but could perhaps be explained by sex differences in contextual attention, or, associative representations.
In Experiment 1, heterosexual women rated the attractiveness of an opposite sex model in 4 conditions; (1) attractive context, (2) attractive context with implied ownership, (3) unattractive context, and (4) unattractive context with ownership implied. A second experiment used a fictitious stockbroker learning task (with both men and women) in 2 biconditional discriminations to measure contextual attention (stage 1) and then to explore the structure of contextual representation (stage 2) using a transfer of occasion setting test.
In Experiment 1, females increased ratings in attractive contexts, both when context ownership was implied and when it was not. In the first stage of Experiment 2, men and women were equally sensitive to contextual cues. In stage 2, women’s learning was impaired when a stimulus previously used as a target was employed as a context (they showed transfer of occasions setting), men showed no such difference.
Sex differences in sensitivity to cues indicating material status may reflect how men and women tend to encode the relationships between background/context stimuli and target stimuli. Women automatically attend to the background and modulate the value of targets using a hierarchical form of representation, whilst men represent background-target associations configurally.
There are numerous hypotheses concerning the structure, size, and strategies of adults’ mental lexicon. This is the first time, however, that children’s mental vocabularies are analysed using the technique of free word associations (with the participation of two hundred 12-year-old and two hundred 13-year-old pupils). The analysis focuses on both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the data like types of associations, lexical representations, distribution of word categories or semantic analysis of words. Comparisons are also made with a very similar material found in the Hungarian literature that provides a unique opportunity to look at the differences of the mental lexicon after 60 years. The discussion concerns (i) the patterns of the tested children’s mental lexicon (including the individual performances) and (ii) vocabulary changes seen as a multifactorial consequence of the progress of time. The hypothesis about the speed of lexical access being a definitive factor in the development of the mental lexicon has been confirmed and may be applied to other languages as well.
The article describes the impact of the 2008 global economic crisis on constitutional developments in the Czech Republic. The author does not focus only on monitoring the temporal coincidence of the submitted draft constitutional acts with the events known as the financial crisis, but also their direct substantive links with them. A temporal link is an insufficient criterion. The capital question is, if a causal link based upon a material aspect exists with regard to each specific example. From this viewpoint, the author suggests dividing proposals for constitutional changes in the Czech Republic into four categories described further in the article. The article tries to explain the Czech constitutional context and the very pro-active approach on the part of politicians to the text of the Constitution and proposals for its amendments, which are however seldom signed into law. The author reaches a general conclusion that the financial crisis itself did not lead to constitutional developments in the Czech Republic. On the other hand, the Czech Republic is undergoing a process (independent of the financial crisis) of the erosion of the political system and the system of political parties associated with a certain amount of public distrust in the traditional system of constitutional and political representations, with the emergence of requirements calling for the strengthening of elements of direct democracy and with the rise of new entities, often selfproclaiming them as being definitely not political parties, but non-political civic movements.