Have we reached the point where more spending on health care and other forms of social protection is not producing better health as measured by reductions in population mortality? Drawing on two decades of research and mortality statistics (1995–2015) for 17 OECD countries, our analysis confirms and builds on the observed relationship between the returns and investments in health and social welfare spending. First, the results suggest that there is a differential effect of socioeconomic, lifestyle and demography variables on total and cause-specific mortality rates. Second, the basic premise of an association between health care expenditure and mortality rates is reinforced in models that take into account public-only health expenditure and its impact on older age groups. Third, a strong protective effect of government-sponsored welfare expenditure on infant mortality was observed. This effect is weaker on other causes of death and suggests that older individuals, in this sample of developed countries, may have reached a stage of the epidemiological transition in which health improvement is indifferent to government assistance and depends largely on behavioural change.
Authors:G. Bozsik, A. Lakatos, G. Szőcs, and I. Tóbiás
The European corn borer moth, (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis
(Lepidoptera: Crambidae, Pyraustinae) is one of the most destructive pests of
maize worldwide. ECB has two pheromone-strains, separated by specific ratios of
isomers of E- and Z11-tetradecenyl acetates (E11- and Z11-14Ac), but appearing
morphologically identical. Accordingly, E- and Z-ECB pheromone traps are
available for the respective populations for practical monitoring of the flight,
however, traps for Z-strain are unreliable for practical usage in some parts of
Central-Europe. E- and Z-ECB populations occur in sympatry in some areas, while
in allelopatry in other areas. Determining the strains before the flight of
adults, when difference in the composition of their respective pheromones is
manifested, would be of practical interest for early warning. In addition to the
known fatty-acyl-reductase (FAR) marker, further markers would allow more
comprehensive studies. We screened the following common markers for
mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions: partial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI),
cytochrome B (CytB), the second spacer of the internal transcribed spacer
(ITS2), Elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and actin gene (Act). In addition, a marker
of the Δ11-desaturase gene (11desat), linked to biosynthesis of female-produced
sex pheromone, was also included, because we reported earlier a differential
expression for this site. Three Z-ECB populations locating at distant sites
within Hungary, an area where only Z-strain occurs, and an E-ECB population in
Slovenia, known as the closest-occurring E-strain, were included into the study.
Separate laboratory colonies were established from each population, and
F1 generations were sampled to verify the identity of pheromone
strains, by analysing the composition of sex pheromone by gas chromatography
linked to an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD). Molecular studies were
conducted using specimens taken from the F2 generations. Results of
genetic studies showed that there were no differences between the Z and E
populations for the common markers. In contrast to this, several nucleic acid
changes (11 nt in 4 positions) were found between the three Z-populations
(Hungary) and the E-population (Slovenia) in the desaturase marker. Further
study is required to reveal whether the differences found in this study are
consistent across E-populations, thus making these markers suitable for
Authors:Ningyuan Guo, Man Ping Wang, Tzu Tsun Luk, Sai Yin Ho, Daniel Yee Tak Fong, Sophia Siu-chee Chan, and Tai Hing Lam
, Fonseca, & Rubio, 2017 ; Lopez-Fernandez, 2017 ; Luk et al., 2018 ; Nahas, Hlais, Saberian, & Antoun, 2018 ). Population-based studies are warranted to investigate the potential effects of PSU in the family context.
Family well-being has been
Authors:Árpád Illés, Csaba Bojtor, Seyed Mohammad Nasir Mousavi, L. Csaba Marton, Péter Ragán, and János Nagy
rootworm contamination, of which the important advantages of the former modeling methods (visual calculation methods, sticky insect traps) are their low costs and their easy and quick application. These methods provide a relative estimate for population
Authors:Olugbenga A. Olowe, Olufunmilola B. Makanjuola, Adeniyi S. Adekanmi, Olusola J. Adefioye, and Rita A. Olowe
Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease globally with its impact more dramatic in resource limited settings. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who also develop tuberculosis represent a significant challenge to TB control. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of TB—HIV coinfection and pattern of infection among TB patients. We also compared treatment outcome among coinfected patients with those not coinfected.
A six-year retrospective review of records of patients managed at the Tuberculosis Treatment Center of the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, South-Western Nigeria from January 2009 to December 2014 was carried out.
One hundred and five (26.3%) of the 399 TB patients seen in the study period were coinfected with HIV. About 10% of the subjects had extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Treatment failure was significantly worse among patients who had both HIV and TB compared with those who had TB only (49.5% vs. 32%, p = 0.001). Death rate was also higher in the coinfected individuals implying a poorer clinical outcome.
High prevalence of TB—HIV coinfection and poor treatment outcome in this group of individuals, though predictable, calls for a more concerted effort in the management of TB—HIV coinfection.
This article focuses on the issue of the relationship between constitutional recognition and constitutional imposition of identity. The Canadian state in its constitutional document describes itself as a liberal democracy governing a pluralist society. It also recognizes Aboriginal rights as constitutive. The first two elements have met with considerable success in terms of aligning state and citizen identity. This suggests that neutral constitutional identities or identities that respect individual diversity can be imposed successfully through the democratic process. However, these are not effective in meeting decolonizing objectives, which must instead be pursued through respecting Indigenous self-governance.
Authors:Norbert Novák, Péter Miklós Kőmíves, Mónika Harangi-Rákos, and Károly Pető
1 Introduction People living in urban or rural areas face different but in many cases similar opportunities and challenges. Urban areas are characterized by a high density of people, consumers, employees and businesses. However, high population