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The idiom of the scales of justiceis commonly known and widely used. Iustitia can frequently be seen in different representations holding scales in her hand. The scales as a means or a symbol of justice (justness) or the administration of justice can be encountered in various places in Greek literature, one of its earliest instances being the Homeric Hermes' Hymn (Dikés talanta). According to these loci Zeus holds the scales of Diké, that is to say, the scales of justice in his hand. In the Iliad (23, 109-213) one may come across a scene presented in context, thus suitable for being more amply analysed, in which Zeus is pronouncing justice over the heroes using a pair of scales. In search of the meaning of Dikés talanta, this study tries to clarify the concept of law and justice (justness) in Homeric epic (I.), then by a structural (II.) and comparative analysis (III.) of certain lines of the weighing scene, decisive in the combat of Achilles and Hector, it formulates a few remarks on the origin and meaning of the concept of the scales of justice. One cannot claim that this idea of Egyptian religion had been transferred in its entirety into Greek thinking, but it is not surprising, as one can barely encounter an unaltered Egyptian borrowing in Greek mythological thinking. Nonetheless, some Egyptian influence, possibly with Cretan transmission, can be detected in the development of the Greek versions of psykhostasia and kerostasia. Pictorial as well as textual manifestations of such influence can be found on the one hand in vase-paintings, and on the other hand-undergoing a specific alteration of aspect in the form of kerostasia-in Homer, who paved the way for the scales of justice of Zeus and Iuppiter to become the symbol of Diké and Iustitia, and subsequently of the administration of justice itself.

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After the battle of Thapsus that took place on 6 April 46 Caesar kept delaying his return to Rome for a long while, until 25 July — he stopped to stay on Sardinia — and this cannot be attributed fully to implementing measures and actions necessary in Africa since they could have been carried out by his new proconsul, C. Sallustius Crispus too. The triumph held owing to the victory in Africa — in which they carried around representations of the death of M. Petreius, M. Porcius Cato and Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica — must have further grated on the nerves of the aristocracy of Rome, because it was meant to symbolise Caesar’s victory both over Iuba and the senate. It was after that that Cicero broke his silence and delivered Pro Marcello in the senate, which was both oratio suasoria and gratiarum actio for the pardon granted to Marcellus, by which Caesar wanted to assure the senate of his benevolence and wanted to show off his power by his autocratic gesture. Pro Ligario delivered in 46 has been considered a classical example of deprecatio by both the antique and modern literature, and in historical terms it is not a less noteworthy work since from the period following the civil war Pro Marcello, having been delivered in early autumn of 46 in the senate, is Cicero’s first oration made on the Forum, that is, before the general public, in which praising Caesar’s clementia he seemingly legitimised dictatorship. First, we describe the historical background of the oratio and the process of the proceedings (I.); then, we examine the issue if the proceedings against Ligarius can be considered a real criminal trial. (II.) After the analysis of the genre of the speech, deprecatio (III.) we analyse the appearance of Caesar’s clementia in Pro Ligario. (IV.) Finally, we focus on the means of style of irony, and highlight an interesting element of the Caesar-Cicero relation and how the orator voices his conviction that he considers the dictator’s power and clementia illegitimate. (V.)

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Lowenstamm — Jean-Roger Vergnaud 1985. The internal structure of phonological representations: A theory of charm and government. In: Phonology Yearbook 2: 305–28. Vergnaud J.-R. The

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Clements, George N. — Engin Sezer 1982. Vowel and consonant disharmony in Turkish. In: Harry van der Hulst — Norval Smith (eds): The structure of phonological representations, part II, 213–255. Foris, Dordrecht, Cinnaminson

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Lambrecht, Knud 1994. Information structure and sentence form. A theory of topic, focus, and the mental representations of discourse referents. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Lambrecht K

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Acta Linguistica Hungarica
Authors: Caroline Féry, Gisbert Fanselow, and Manfred Krifka

Lambrecht, Knud 1994. Information structure and sentence form. A theory of topic, focus, and the mental representations of discourse referents. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Lambrecht K

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representations of discourse referents. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Lambrecht K. A theory of topic, focus, and the mental representations of discourse

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interne des gabarits: activité morphologique du niveau squelettal des représentations phonologiques en berbère, somali et béja. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Paris 7. Chaker, Salem 1983. Un parler berbère d

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. Csertő , I ., Geiszt , T ., & Pólya , T . (előkészületben). European Future Based on a National Past? Folk Historical Representations of The Hungarian National History Before and After Hungary’s Joining the EU . Doosje , B ., & Branscombe , N. R

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are also described in detail. In Chapter 19, Erica Scharrer, Laras Sekarasih, and Christine Olson introduce an exciting argument on the role of media literacy education (MLE) in an effort to reduce the influence of media representations of alcohol

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