Authors:Hagen Frickmann, Caroline Klenk, Philipp Warnke, Sylvio Redanz, and Andreas Podbielski
growth of staphylococci, correspond to the results in the literature in particular for S. salivarius K12. The observed increased effect by higher concentrations of the culture supernatants was also described by others [ 2 , 14 , 42 ]. Further, the
Authors:Matthias F. Emele, Matti Karg, Helmut Hotzel, Linda Graaf-van Bloois, Uwe Groß, Oliver Bader, and Andreas E. Zautner
, Asim M , Ashour A , Elhiday AH , Mohsen T , Doiphode S . Campylobacter peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: report of three cases and review of the literature . Perit Dial Int . 2010 ; 30 : 99
Authors:G. K. Mishra, D. K. Upreti, S. Nayaka, A. Thell, I. Kärnefelt, L. Lőkös, J.-S. Hur, G. P. Sinha, and S. Y. Kondratyuk
, Allahabad (BSA), Eastern Regional Centre of Botanical Survey of India, Meghalaya, Shillong (ASSAM), and published literature. The specimens were examined morphologically, anatomically, and chemically. Micrographs were prepared by an Olympus E450 camera (with
Authors:Manja Boehm, Daniel Simson, Ulrike Escher, Anna-Maria Schmidt, Stefan Bereswill, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Steffen Backert, and Markus M. Heimesaat
contribute in this way to host cell binding and invasion of C. jejuni . Alternatively, C. jejuni HtrA could also bind directly to host cell surface protein(s) to act as an adhesion itself, but there are as yet no such indications in the literature [ 108
Authors:Ernst-Jürgen Finke, Wolfgang Beyer, Ulrike Loderstädt, and Hagen Frickmann
the cases described. The literature review presented here shows that the risk of infection through soil or water potentially contaminated with spores is extremely low in anthrax regions ( Fig. 5 ). In highly endemic areas of deployment, however
Authors:Luis Q. Langfeld, Ke Du, Stefan Bereswill, and Markus M. Heimesaat
literature survey aims to summarize the current state of knowledge concerning antimicrobial and immune-modulatory effects of propionate. Methods Inclusion and exclusion criteria The main inclusion criteria were in vitro and in vivo studies addressing the
Authors:Trudy Wassenaar, David Ussery, Lene Nielsen, and Hanne Ingmer
The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family. Not all SMR proteins are called Qac and the reverse is also true, which has caused confusion in the literature and in gene annotations. The discovery of qac genes and their presence in various staphylococcal populations is briefly reviewed. A sequence comparison revealed that some of the PCR primers described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while qacA was also detected in Enterococcus faecalis, suggesting that these plasmid-born genes have spread across bacterial genera. Nevertheless, these qacA and qacB genes are quite dissimilar to their closest homologues in other organisms. In contrast, SMR-type Qac proteins display considerable sequence variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting with genes present in S. aureus and S. epidermidis, and extending this to related genes found in other species of this genus, and finally to genes found in other genera.
Authors:Zoltán Attila Köbölkuti, Klára Cseke, Attila Benke, Mátyás Báder, Attila Borovics, and Róbert Németh
production process in poplar is not excessively large in the literature. For that reason, SNP markers connected with wood production encoding genes in our opinion would represent a meaningful tool to meet the breeding necessities.
Authors:Donata Grimm, Linn Woelber, Katharina Prieske, Barbara Schmalfeldt, Sascha Kürti, Chia-Jung Busch, Ingo Teudt, Oliver Brummer, Volkmar Mueller, and Thomas Meyer
6. Kreimer AR , Bhatia RK , Messeguer AL , et al Oral human papillomavirus in healthy individuals: a systematic review of the literature . Sex Transm Dis . 2010 ; 37 : 386 – 91 .
7. Meyer MF , Huebbers CU