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-branches [ 10–14 ]. The virulence of B. anthracis is based on an antiphagocytic poly-gamma- d -glutamic acid capsule, an exotoxin complex (lethal toxin and oedema toxin), and exoproteases that can lyse macrophages and release interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour

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globally and locally opening. In the case of some clinically important species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , comparative studies are available regarding virulence factors, genomic diversity [ 1 ], or antibiotic resistance of strains isolated from

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: E. Sapi, K. Gupta, K. Wawrzeniak, G. Gaur, J. Torres, K. Filush, A. Melillo and B. Zelger

virulence of the bacterial pathogens and can cause significant damage to the host [ 96 ]. Relating the role of Chlamydia in the biofilm form with Borrelia could suggest that they have a symbiotic relation. In summary, our data provides strong

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], as well as against Streptococcus mutans [ 4 ]. Notably, in vitro studies revealed that the expression of distinct virulence factors in Porphyromonas gingivalis , as well as bacterial growth, could be inhibited by vitamin D application [ 25

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virulence of the virus, on crowded places, on the hygiene and behaviour of the person, and on co-infection with other pathogens [ 18 ]. Diagnosis Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and demonstration of the virus RNA. Detecting antibodies generated

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Discussion Emerging evidence indicates that Pg has a more complex relationship with the host. It is not only considered as the most virulent periopathogen but rather a “key-stone pathogen” possessing an array of virulence factors and the potential

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antimicrobial effect of blue light: What are behind? Virulence . 2017 ; 8 : 649 – 52 . doi: 10.1080/21505594.2016.1276691 . 9. Dai T , Hamblin MR

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Hans Kollenda, Hagen Frickmann, Rania Ben Helal, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Habiba Naija, Mohamed Sélim El Asli, Melanie Egold, Joachim Jakob Bugert, Susann Handrick, Roman Wölfel, Farouk Barguellil and Mohamed Ben Moussa

antibiotic resistance and E. coli virulence genes in bacteriophage and prophage nucleotide sequences . Bacteriophage . 2014 ; 4 : e27943 . 10.4161/bact.27943 30. Zankari E. Comparison of the web tools ARG-ANNOT and ResFinder for detection of

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19. Bouzid M , Hunter PR , Chalmers RM , Tyler KM . Cryptosporidium pathogenicity and virulence . Clin Microbiol Rev . 2013 ; 26 ( 1 ): 115 – 34 . 10.1128/CMR

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virulence factors and V. cholerae O1 in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland . Appl Environ Microbiol 2015 ; 81 : 1909 – 18 . https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03540-14 . 10.1128/AEM.03540-14 26. Ottaviani D , Masini L , Bacchiocchi S . A biochemical protocol

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