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) ( f c + f c t ) 2 , (9.b) τ ( σ ) W A L T H E R = 1 2   f c   σ − σ 2   if   σ > f c / 4 ,   or τ ( σ ) W A L T H E R = f c 8 1 + 8 σ f c   if   σ < f c / 4 ,   and   f c t = f c / 8 , where f ct is the tensile strength and f c is the compressive

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K −1 50 Boltzmann's constant σ /W m −2 K −4 5.67 × 10 −8 Surface radiation

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first stage using a Probit model, and then w i t ′ γ ˜ were obtained used in the second step, to obtain β and the consistent estimator of β λ through least square regression. If ρ ≠ 0 , then there is a bias equalling ρ σ ( − w i t   ′ γ ) . 5

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