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Differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) and UV–VIS absorption spectroscopy were used to obtain the characteristics of blood serum from newborn rat’ after maternal treatment with cyclophosphamide in comparison with control. The obtained DSC curves reveal a complex endothermic peak due to the unfolding process of various serum proteins. Thermal profiles and absorption spectra of blood serum are sensitive to the age of newborns as well as to effect of maternal administration of cyclophosphamide. The most significant disturbances in serum proteome were observed for 14-day old newborns. The thermodynamic parameters: enthalpy change (∆H), the normalized first moment (M1) of the thermal transition with respect to the temperature axis and the ratio of C p ex at 70 and 60 °C describing denaturation contributions of globulin forms in respect to unliganded albumin with haptoglobin was estimated. Moreover, the second derivative spectroscopy in the UV region was used to resolve the complex protein spectrum. The differences in blood serum detected by DSC and UV–VIS confirm a potential usefulness of these methods for diagnostic and monitoring changes with age as well as the pathological state of blood serum.

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(corvitin) in a dose 100 mg/kg of animal weight intramuscularly for 7 days (from the 7 th to the 14 th day). On the 14 th day, the experimental rats were sacrificed by bleeding under thiopental anesthesia. For further testing, blood serum was selected

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day). On the 14 th day, experimental animals were exsanguinated under thiopental anesthesia. For further research, the blood serum was selected. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity, and ceruloplasmin maintenance were determined in the serum

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proteins of the basic character (OMP 430 ) in blood serum (by 1.75 times, p  < 0.01), but later, on 14th day, this index changed in the opposite direction, that is, it began to decrease (by 1.24 times, p  < 0.01) as compared with the animals on the 7th

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Demencia prevenció: A korai diagnózistól a személyre szabott intervencióig

Dementia Prevention: From Early Diagnosis to Personalised Intervention

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Annamária Manga, Menta Havadi-Nagy, Orsolya Székely, and Zoltán Vidnyánszky

Összefoglaló. Az elmúlt évtizedekben a várható élettartam emelkedésével drámai mértékben nőtt a demencia előfordulásának gyakorisága, melynek hátterében leggyakrabban az Alzheimer-kór áll. A rendkívül ígéretes, biomarkereken, agyi képalkotáson és mesterséges intelligencián alapuló megközelítéseknek köszönhetően egyre szélesebb körű információink vannak a betegség kialakulásáról és lefolyásáról, új kapukat nyitva ezzel a demencia korai diagnózisa és a személyre szabott terápia felé. Míg az új kutatási irányzatok előnye vitathatatlan, a nagy mennyiségű kutatási adat kezelése, illetve a betegség korai szakaszban történő azonosítása több biztonsági kérdést felvet. A korai diagnózis mellett egyre nagyobb hangsúly helyeződik az intervencióra, a demenciára hajlamosító tényezőkbe történő beavatkozás által.

Summary. As a consequence of increasing life expectancy, the number of those living with dementia is rising. While Alzheimer’s disease (AD) constitutes the most common cause of dementia, the origin of AD is unknown. Furthermore, in the absence of effective treatment, therapy focuses on the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of the disease, and the wellbeing of the patient. AD is characterised by a pronounced impairment experienced in one or more cognitive domains, and the criterion of the diagnosis is the presence of aggregated proteins in the brain leading to neuron death, and eventually to the loss of cognitive abilities.

As a result of the latest technological advances, several biological markers (biomarkers) of AD pathology were identified. The biomarkers can be obtained using positron emission tomography or measured from cerebrospinal fluid, and lately from blood serum and plasma as well. Magnetic resonance imaging provides an important measure of brain atrophy, a biomarker of neurodegeneration and neuronal injury. The structure of the brain shows significant alterations as a function of neuronal loss, with cortical thinning and tissue density changes, mainly starting from the medial temporal lobes (also including the hippocampus playing a prominent role in memory functions), and extending to the temporoparietal regions, with observed changes in the activity of the different functional brain networks as well.

A major challenge in defeating AD is that in most cases, the disease is recognised subsequent to the appearance of the decline in cognitive abilities, hampering everyday life. Previous studies identified a preclinical stage of AD, where the biomarkers indicative of the disease are present in the absence of detectable cognitive symptoms. This early, preclinical stage – with the use of artificial intelligence-based techniques – has been suggested to be a promising window for the early detection of the disease, and also for the prediction of individual disease trajectories, allowing for the thorough planning of patient management. While the benefit of the early diagnosis is unequivocal, it raises a number of important ethical and safety issues.

Besides the tremendous effort of developing effective medical treatments, the importance of intervention stands in the centre of scientific interest. The proposed prevention and intervention methods target the potentially modifiable risk factors of dementia, encouraging engagement in stimulating everyday activities and healthy lifestyle, to preserve longevity.

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. Peeters , M. , Sulon , J. , Beckers , J. F. , Ledoux , D. and Vandenheede , M. ( 2011 ): Comparison between blood serum and salivary cortisol concentrations in horses using an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge . Equine Vet. J. 43 , 487

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). *Statistically significant difference compared with non-Su groups The results of biochemical analysis of the blood serum are listed in Table  II . Neither the RT nor the administration of Su modified significantly the mean

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the contents of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in mouse blood serum, decrease the contents of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in mouse blood serum and liver, and decrease levels of lipofuscin (LF) in

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: Monica Chavez Vivas, Hector Fabio Villamarin Guerrero, Antonio Jose Tascon, and Augusto Valderrama-Aguirre

part in the systemic response to infection [ 11–17 ]. This study was aimed at assessing the levels of IL-6 in the blood serum of patients with sepsis and septic shock. The results demonstrated significant decline of IL-6 at 48 h after the

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); There is no significant difference between the mean results of the measurements (T1–T4) The lactate values taken from the blood serum during the T1, T2, T3, T4 measurements are shown in Table 3 . Table 3. Serum lactate values of the subjects before and

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