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References [1] Ji L. K. , Zheng M. , et al. ( 2015 ), Apparent strain of a pipe at plastic bending buckling state . J. of the

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1 Introduction Rectangular plates are used as thin-walled structural elements in engineering structures, such as ships, aircrafts, bridges, and offshore structures. Analysis of inelastic buckling of thin rectangular plates is important, especially

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this paper is modeling and simulating the closing process of a plastic box buckle using nonlinear Finite Element Method (FEM), then to compare the results obtained via an industrial robot. An intelligent end-effector has been developed, which contains a

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(material) imperfections (e.g., residual stresses). Besides, due to high width-to-thickness ratio of I-section steel members, local buckling occurs [ 2 ]. These imperfections considerably affect the behavior of steel members and reduce their buckling

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. Buckling of offshore structures , Granada, London , 1984 . [5] Eurocode 3, Part 1.1, Design of steel structures, General rules and rules for buildings , European Committee for

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core and the steel tube. The concrete core delays the bending and local buckling of the steel tube, while confinement of concrete through the steel tube enhances the strength and ductility of the concrete core. On the other hand, the steel tube works as

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susceptible area of the tower structure, as the first natural frequency is not close to the corresponding 1P and 3P and the tower is a soft–stiff tower design. Future research work and investigation will be based on the development of buckling and fatigue

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flexural strength of the compressed bars and the buckling strength of the plates and shells. Warps can result in dimensionally inaccurate structural elements and scrap. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate their magnitude in advance by calculating and

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are located in a high seismic hazard zone. Three retrofit schemes were introduced including; 1) X-Steel bracings; 2) buckling restrained composite bracings; and 3) composite concrete-steel plate shear walls. The seismic performance enhancement of the

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Onesteel Australian Tube Mills (OATM), made of two torsionally rigid hollow flanges and a slender web [ 1 ]. Fig. 1. Left: LiteSteel beams [ 1 ], right: Geometry of the tested section, on the basis of [ 2 ] The study of buckling is important and necessary

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